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- Author or Editor: B. H. Barritt x
In the grape, 3 major fruit color phenotypes occur: white, red, and black. Segregation for fruit color is reported for 43 crosses involving 27 parent varieties. Evidence is presented which supports a 2-gene hypothesis for the inheritance of fruit color. A gene for black fruit color (B - - -) was dominant and epistatic to that for red and white fruit with red fruit (bbR—) dominant to white (bbrr). Fruit color genotypes are presented for 27 grape varieties.
Growth retardants succinic acid 2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (Alar), (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CCC), and potassium gibberellate (KGA3) were tested as fruit-setting agents in 1967 and 1968 for poorly setting varieties of seedless grapes. Cluster and berry thinning was practiced on the control and treated vines. Pre-bloom Alar sprays at most concentrations from 250 to 2000 ppm failed to increase the number of berries per cluster or cluster weight, and showed a tendency to reduce average berry weight and total soluble solids. Pre-bloom CCC treatments from 500 to 1500 ppm gave increases in the number of berries per cluster and cluster weight, while average berry weight and total soluble solids were unaffected. Length of the newly formed internodes was reduced by CCC treatments of 500 and 1500 ppm while Alar at these concentrations had little effect.
Twenty-five strawberry cultivars and advanced selections were ranked according to their field susceptibility to fruit rot caused primarily by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. it was apparent that the resistant cultivars, ‘Shuksan’, ‘WSU 1140’ and ‘WSU 1142% derived their resistance from ‘Columbia’ and ‘Molalla’. Among the most susceptible cultivars were ‘Cheam’, ‘Cambridge Vigour’, ‘Northwest’ and ‘Marshall’. There was no apparent relationship between the incidence of fruit rot and yielding ability although 3 cultivars, ‘Shuksan’, ‘WSU 1140’ and ‘WSU 1142’, combined fruit rot resistance with high yields.
Root-shoots of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) rooted in auxin solutions in 10 days. Root initiation was markedly influenced by auxin concentration.
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) clones and seedlings were evaluated in infested field soils for resistance to a root rot. Disease symptoms were root necrosis and wilting of first and second year canes. Of 41 clones examined ‘Latham’, ‘Newburgh’, ‘Durham’, ‘Chief’ and ‘WSU 458’ were the most resistant. ‘Lloyd George’ and its derivatives were generally the most susceptible. Evaluation of seedlings from 25 crosses showed that ‘Latham’ and ‘Newburgh’ produced the highest percentage of resistant seedlings and the seedlings with the highest level of resistance; ‘Glen Clova’ and ‘Meeker’ produced the fewest seedlings with resistance. Heritability estimates based on parent/offspring regression were 0.85 for the percentage of seedlings infected and 0.92 for the mean seedling injury rating.
Cultivar and planting site are two factors that often receive minimal attention, but can have a significant impact on the quality of apple (Malus ×domestica) produced. A regional project, NE-183 The Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars, was initiated in 1995 to systematically evaluate 20 newer apple cultivars on Malling.9 (M.9) rootstock across 19 sites in North America. This paper describes the effect of cultivar and site on fruit quality and sensory attributes at a number of the planting sites for the 1998 through 2000 growing seasons. Fruit quality attributes measured included fruit weight, length: diameter ratio, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), flesh firmness, red overcolor, and russet. Fruit sensory characteristics rated included crispness, sweetness, and juiciness, based on a unipolar intensity scale (where 1 = least and 5 = most), and acidity, flavor, attractiveness, and desirability based on a bipolar hedonic scale (where 1 = dislike and 5 = like extremely). All fruit quality and sensory variables measured were affected by cultivar. The two-way interaction of cultivar and planting site was significant for all response variables except SSC, TA, russet, crispness, and sweetness ratings. The SSC: TA ratio was strongly correlated with sweetness and acidity sensory rating, but was weakly correlated with flavor rating. The results demonstrate that no one cultivar is ideally suited for all planting sites and no planting site is ideal for maximizing the quality of all apple cultivars.