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  • Author or Editor: Arthur Villordon* x
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Digital image analysis (DIA) was evaluated for use in assessing size and shape attributes of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] storage roots in herbicide studies. Digital image files of U.S. no. 1 storage roots were taken using a digital camera. Image analysis was performed using a publicly available software package. Eight size and shape attributes were measured and subjected to univariate and multivariate procedures. DIA revealed differences for storage root width and roundness attributes. Principal component analysis suggested that storage root length, width, and roundness best described the variability of the storage root sample. The results demonstrate the potential use of DIA in augmenting data from sweetpotato herbicide trials as well as other investigations that require information about storage root size and shape responses.

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Shape measurements in horticultural research have generally been expressed as ratios or indexes. Computer-based image analysis enables the objective quantification and statistical analysis of two-dimensional sample shape variability. In addition, the availability of public domain software facilitates the inexpensive but accurate quantification of object shape in horticultural research. We describe the procedures for measuring sample shape using the following publicly available software: ImageJ, ImageTool, and SHAPE. Using U.S. #1 sweetpotato storage root samples from plots subjected to various weed control treatments, we detected significant differences in elongation, compactness, as well as shape attributes. We also measured size and shape variability from representative fruit, leaf, and floral organ samples. The results demonstrate that, where possible, measurement of two-dimensional samples can be undertaken inexpensively and accurately using public domain software applications.

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In sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), the successful emergence and development of lateral roots (LRs), the main determinant of root system architecture (RSA), determines the competency of adventitious roots (ARs) to undergo storage root formation. The present study investigated the effect of three levels of root-knot nematode (RKN) inoculum of race 3 of Meloidogyne incognita on LR length, number, area, and volume in ‘Beauregard’, ‘Evangeline’, and ‘Bayou Belle’, sweetpotato cultivars which are highly susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant, respectively, to M. incognita. The three RKN levels were control (untreated), medium (500 eggs/pot), and high (5000 eggs/pot). In general, the number of galls after 20 days for each cultivar was consistent across RKN levels and two planting dates (PDs). ‘Beauregard’ inoculated with medium and high RKN levels showed 2.9 and 18.9 galls on each AR, respectively. ‘Evangeline’ had 0.5 and 3.4 galls at medium and high RKN levels, respectively. By contrast, ‘Bayou Belle’ showed only 0.9 galls at the high inoculum level. There was a significant PD × cultivar effect and cultivar × RKN level effect for all root attributes. LR attributes varied within and among resistant and susceptible cultivars with a general trend for increase in all root growth attributes in response to RKN infection in the first (PD1) and second PD (PD2). ‘Evangeline’ showed relatively consistent within-cultivar increase across PD1 (medium and high RKN levels) and PD2 (medium RKN level only). LR length, number, area, and volume within ‘Evangeline’ plants subjected to high RKN increased 122%, 126%, 154%, and 136%, respectively, relative to the untreated control plants in PD1. ‘Evangeline’ (PD1 and PD2) and ‘Bayou Belle’ (PD1 only) showed significant increase in all root attributes relative to the susceptible ‘Beauregard’ at medium or high RKN levels. In PD1, LR length, number, area, and volume in ‘Evangeline’ plants subjected to high RKN increased 165%, 167%, 176%, and 190%, respectively, relative to ‘Beauregard’ plants at the same RKN level. These findings are consistent with some data in other systems wherein nematode infection is associated with cultivar-specific root compensatory growth and demonstrate how genotype and environment interact to modify root development responses. These data can be used to further understand the role of cultivar-specific responses to nematode infection and can lead to the consideration of root traits in selection strategies.

Open Access

Genetic uniformity was assessed among sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) clones propagated through adventitious and nodal procedures. A single sprout each of `Jewel,' `Sumor,' and L87-95 was used as source of clonal plants that were simultaneously propagated through conventional adventitious procedures and a tissue culture-based nodal culture technique. A sample of 15 decamer primers generated 64 scorable amplified fragments in a PCR-based assay, 29 of which were putatively polymorphic across n = 60 samples (10 each of nodal and adventitiously derived plants/genotype). Within adventitiously derived materials, putative polymorphisms ranged from 4.7% to 31.3% depending on the genotypic class. In contrast, putative polymorphisms ranged from 0.0% to 3.1% among nodally derived samples. Marker loci differentiated genotypes as well as putative marker phenotype variants through a multidimensional scaling analysis of the genetic similarity matrix. An `analysis of molecular variance' shows that genotypic effects accounted for 88.7% of the total molecular marker variability, while propagation effects (within genotypic groups) accounted for 11.3%. Results confirm that clonal plants derived from preexisting meristematic regions are more genetically uniform than plants propagated from adventitious origins.

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Polymorphism analysis and yield tests were conducted among `Jewel' sweetpotato clones [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] obtained from eight state foundation seed programs. Initially, 38 arbitrary primers generated a total of 110 scorable DNA fragments in a sample of virus-indexed plants from each clone source. The number of marker loci scored for each primer varied from one to eight with an average of 2.89. Twenty-one bands (19.1%) were scored as putative polymorphic markers based on the presence or absence of amplified products. Further estimation of variability within each clone source was accomplished by an assay of 10 sample plants per clone group by 14 marker loci generated by four selected primers. Polymorphic bands ranged from 7.1% to 35.7 % in five of eight clone groups. Field studies show variation in nearly all yield grades measured. In three tests during the 1991 and 1992 seasons, yield differences ranged from 27% to 46% within the economically important U.S. no. 1 root grade. The results suggest the usefulness of arbitrarily-primed markers in detecting intra-clonal sweetpotato DNA polymorphisms and indicate an underlying genetic cause for phenotypic variability in the crop.

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Handheld computing devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), can potentially reduce repetitive tasks that pervade data collection activities in horticultural research. PDA-collected records are electronically transferred to a desktop computer, eliminating manual reentry as well as the need of reviewing for incorrect data entries. In addition, PDAs can be enclosed in protective cases, enabling data collection in inclement weather. Visual CE-generated database forms installed on PDAs were used to electronically collect data from research trials conducted in 2003. The records were subsequently transferred to Microsoft Access desktop database tables for archiving and subsequent statistical analyses. Data for certain trials were also manually collected using paper forms to facilitate comparison between manual and PDA-assisted data collection methods under controlled conditions. Using paired samples analysis, we determined that electronic transfer of records reduced the time required to store the records into desktop computer files. Manual and PDA-based recording methods did not vary in the time required to enter numerical measurements. Our experience demonstrates that off-the-shelf software and consumer PDA devices are viable options for data collection in research. PDA-assisted data collection is potentially useful in situations where remote, site-specific records need to be merged into a central database and where standardized measurements and observations are essential for performing analysis.

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The sweetpotato weevil [SPW, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius)] is an important economic pest in “pink-tagged” or SPW-infested areas of Louisiana. From time to time, sweetpotato weevils are detected in “green-tagged” or SPW-free locations. When sweetpotato weevils are detected in “green'tagged” areas, the produce is quarantined and may not be shipped to locations that do not allow “pink-tagged” sweetpotatoes. As part of the statewide SPW monitoring program, the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) conducts a statewide pheromone-based trapping program to monitor SPW presence in beds and fields. We used SPW presence-absence data with a GIS-based logistic regression modeling tool to assess the feasibility of developing a model for predicting SPW risk in sweetpotato beds. Using pheromone trap data from 2001–03, we performed stepwise logistic regression experiments to assess the role of various weather variables (daily mean maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall) in the occurrence of SPW in beds. Our modeling experiments showed a strong relationship of mean daily minimum temperature during the winter months with SPW occurrence in beds. In particular, a logistic regression equation developed from 2003 trap data and mean April daily minimum temperature created a spatially accurate map of SPW risk for 2002. However, the same model did not accurately predict the 2001 SPW risk. These results indicate that additional variables are needed to improve the predictive ability of the model. Spatial risk mapping can be a potentially useful tool for decision makers in choosing between risk-averse and -prone decisions.

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A scanner-based minirhizotron (MR) system detected initial adventitious root (AR) development associated with transplant establishment. The system also documented the transition of ARs into pencil roots (PRs) and, in some cases, storage roots (SRs). In general, the MR system underestimated destructive sampling-based (DS) estimates of newly initiated AR (NAR), PR, and SR counts. Angled or vertical single sampling tubes underestimated NAR count by 85% and 79%, respectively. Regardless of installation position, single tube-based measurements underestimated PR and SR count by 83% and 95%, respectively. However, it was found that two vertically installed tubes underestimated NAR count by only 48%. The potential ability of paired sampling tubes to discriminate NAR count differences in response to experimental treatments was confirmed in a simple rain shelter experiment. The paired MR and DS systems detected 83% and 56% reduction in NAR count among plots with rain shelters, respectively. However, it appeared that the presence of tubes interfered with SR formation of monitored AR segments. Despite this limitation, the results show the potential for incorporating MR systems in ongoing and future studies that aim to qualitatively and quantitatively document sweetpotato AR system response to agroclimatic variables and management interventions during the initial SR bulking stage.

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