Arthur Villordon and Jason Franklin
Shape measurements in horticultural research have generally been expressed as ratios or indexes. Computer-based image analysis enables the objective quantification and statistical analysis of two-dimensional sample shape variability. In addition, the availability of public domain software facilitates the inexpensive but accurate quantification of object shape in horticultural research. We describe the procedures for measuring sample shape using the following publicly available software: ImageJ, ImageTool, and SHAPE. Using U.S. #1 sweetpotato storage root samples from plots subjected to various weed control treatments, we detected significant differences in elongation, compactness, as well as shape attributes. We also measured size and shape variability from representative fruit, leaf, and floral organ samples. The results demonstrate that, where possible, measurement of two-dimensional samples can be undertaken inexpensively and accurately using public domain software applications.
Arthur Villordon and Heather Carroll
Digital image analysis (DIA) was evaluated for use in assessing size and shape attributes of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] storage roots in herbicide studies. Digital image files of U.S. no. 1 storage roots were taken using a digital camera. Image analysis was performed using a publicly available software package. Eight size and shape attributes were measured and subjected to univariate and multivariate procedures. DIA revealed differences for storage root width and roundness attributes. Principal component analysis suggested that storage root length, width, and roundness best described the variability of the storage root sample. The results demonstrate the potential use of DIA in augmenting data from sweetpotato herbicide trials as well as other investigations that require information about storage root size and shape responses.
Arthur Villordon and Christopher Clark
In sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), the successful emergence and development of lateral roots (LRs), the main determinant of root system architecture (RSA), determines the competency of adventitious roots (ARs) to undergo storage root formation. The present study investigated the effect of three levels of root-knot nematode (RKN) inoculum of race 3 of Meloidogyne incognita on LR length, number, area, and volume in ‘Beauregard’, ‘Evangeline’, and ‘Bayou Belle’, sweetpotato cultivars which are highly susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant, respectively, to M. incognita. The three RKN levels were control (untreated), medium (500 eggs/pot), and high (5000 eggs/pot). In general, the number of galls after 20 days for each cultivar was consistent across RKN levels and two planting dates (PDs). ‘Beauregard’ inoculated with medium and high RKN levels showed 2.9 and 18.9 galls on each AR, respectively. ‘Evangeline’ had 0.5 and 3.4 galls at medium and high RKN levels, respectively. By contrast, ‘Bayou Belle’ showed only 0.9 galls at the high inoculum level. There was a significant PD × cultivar effect and cultivar × RKN level effect for all root attributes. LR attributes varied within and among resistant and susceptible cultivars with a general trend for increase in all root growth attributes in response to RKN infection in the first (PD1) and second PD (PD2). ‘Evangeline’ showed relatively consistent within-cultivar increase across PD1 (medium and high RKN levels) and PD2 (medium RKN level only). LR length, number, area, and volume within ‘Evangeline’ plants subjected to high RKN increased 122%, 126%, 154%, and 136%, respectively, relative to the untreated control plants in PD1. ‘Evangeline’ (PD1 and PD2) and ‘Bayou Belle’ (PD1 only) showed significant increase in all root attributes relative to the susceptible ‘Beauregard’ at medium or high RKN levels. In PD1, LR length, number, area, and volume in ‘Evangeline’ plants subjected to high RKN increased 165%, 167%, 176%, and 190%, respectively, relative to ‘Beauregard’ plants at the same RKN level. These findings are consistent with some data in other systems wherein nematode infection is associated with cultivar-specific root compensatory growth and demonstrate how genotype and environment interact to modify root development responses. These data can be used to further understand the role of cultivar-specific responses to nematode infection and can lead to the consideration of root traits in selection strategies.
Arthur Villordon and Jeffrey C. Gregorie
The primary objective of this work was to generate species-specific information about root architectural adaptation to variation in boron (B) availability at the onset of storage root formation among three sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars (Beauregard = BX; Murasaki = MU; Okinawa = OK). Three B levels were used: 0B (B was omitted in the nutrient solution, substrate B = 0.1 mg·kg−1), 1XB (sufficient B; 0.5 mg·kg−1), and 2XB (high B; 1 mg·kg−1). The check cultivar BX showed evidence of storage root formation at 15 days in 0B and 1XB, whereas cultivars MU and OK failed to show evidence of root swelling. The 1XB and 2XB levels were associated with 736% and 2269% increase in leaf tissue B in BX, respectively, relative to plants grown in 0B. Similar magnitudes of increase were observed in MU and OK cultivars. There were no differences in adventitious root (AR) count within cultivars but OK showed 25% fewer AR numbers relative to BX across all B levels. 0B was associated with 20% and 48% reduction in main root length in BX and OK, respectively, relative to plants grown in 1XB and 2XB. 2XB was associated with a 10% increase in main root length in MU relative to plants grown in 0B and 1XB. 0B was associated with reduced lateral root length in all cultivars but the magnitude of responses varied with cultivars. These data corroborate findings in model systems and well-studied crop species that B deficiency is associated with reduced root growth. These data can be used to further understand the role of cultivar-specific responses to variation in B availability in sweetpotato.
Arthur Villordon*, Craig Roussel, and Tad Hardy
The Louisiana Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) conducts sweetpotato weevil [SPW, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius)] monitoring in support of the statewide SPW quarantine program. The monitoring activity primarily involves a statewide pheromone-based trapping process that generates trap data for sweetpotato beds and production fields. We conducted GIS analysis of SPW trap data, collected over three years, to assess the potential use of GIS tools in managing and interpreting the data. The LDAF has already generated shapefiles for all beds and fields in each of three years, facilitating GIS analysis. However, trap data was manually collected and statewide data was compiled and stored in spreadsheet files. Trap data was mapped to specific beds and fields in each of three years, generating layers that clearly showed fields and parishes that reported high trap counts. GIS analysis showed potential SPW “hotspots” in each year, indicating that certain beds or fields are more prone to SPW infestation than others. This information can be useful in planning SPW management strategies by growers and other stakeholders. The GIS database also provides the foundation for the development of descriptive and predictive models of SPW occurence in Louisiana. Compiling the SPW trap data into a GIS database allows the data to be distributed over the Internet, facilitating real-time access by stakeholders.
Arthur Villordon*, Jason Franklin, and Don LaBonte
The use of handheld computers such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) represents a feasible method of automating the transfer of files to computers for archiving and statistical analysis. Data collected using the PDA can be transferred directly to a database program on a desktop computer, virtually eliminating errors associated with the reentry of manually collected data. These devices are highly portable and can be housed in protective cases, enabling data collection even in inclement environments. The availability of handheld database programs that permit the development of electronic forms further makes the PDA a viable data collection platform for scientific research. These database applications not only allow novice users to develop customized forms that facilitate the recording of alphanumeric data; these applications also synchronize directly with current desktop-based database and spread-sheet applications. We used Microsoft Access database tables, along with Visual CE, a PocketPC database application, to generate electronic forms for collecting data from research trials conducted in 2003. To facilitate comparison with manual data collection, we also recorded observations using “pen and paper” methods. We found no differences between both methods in the length of time required to enter observations. However, the PDA transferred the data to a computer 600% faster relative to the manual reentry method. Using the handheld computer, field data was immediately available for compilation and statistical analysis within minutes of completing the data gathering process, at the same time ensuring the integrity and continuity of the files.
Arthur Q. Villordon and Don R. LaBonte
Clonal propagation assures the maintenance of genetic purity of a sweetpotato variety. The existence of foundation seed programs further contributes to the conservation of favorable genetic constitution in a commercial cultivar. However, the improvement of current maintenance procedures is necessary as shown by the occurrence of mutations and the decline of certain commercial varieties. Information on the nature and extent of changes in sweetpotato would therefore be useful in this regard.
`Jewel' clones obtained from eight state foundation seed programs were subjected to yield tests and a RAPD-based assay. Differences in nearly all yield grades were detected during the 1991, 1992, and 1993 seasons. The yield of U.S. No. 1 grade roots varied from 27% to 46%. The quality factors measured also varied: % alcohol insoluble solids varied by 13%, while sucrose ranged from 9.6% to 19%. Total DNA was extracted from each clone and assayed against 40 primers. All primers produced amplified fragments. A total of 110 reproducible bands was generated by 38 primers. Putative polymorphic markers were scored in 21 (18.58%) of these bands based on the presence or absence of amplified products. The results suggest an underlying cause for the variability observed in phenotypic traits within sweetpotato clones.
Arthur Villordon, Craig Roussel, and Tad Hardy
The sweetpotato weevil [SPW, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius)] is an important economic pest in “pink-tagged” or SPW-infested areas of Louisiana. From time to time, sweetpotato weevils are detected in “green-tagged” or SPW-free locations. When sweetpotato weevils are detected in “green'tagged” areas, the produce is quarantined and may not be shipped to locations that do not allow “pink-tagged” sweetpotatoes. As part of the statewide SPW monitoring program, the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) conducts a statewide pheromone-based trapping program to monitor SPW presence in beds and fields. We used SPW presence-absence data with a GIS-based logistic regression modeling tool to assess the feasibility of developing a model for predicting SPW risk in sweetpotato beds. Using pheromone trap data from 2001–03, we performed stepwise logistic regression experiments to assess the role of various weather variables (daily mean maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall) in the occurrence of SPW in beds. Our modeling experiments showed a strong relationship of mean daily minimum temperature during the winter months with SPW occurrence in beds. In particular, a logistic regression equation developed from 2003 trap data and mean April daily minimum temperature created a spatially accurate map of SPW risk for 2002. However, the same model did not accurately predict the 2001 SPW risk. These results indicate that additional variables are needed to improve the predictive ability of the model. Spatial risk mapping can be a potentially useful tool for decision makers in choosing between risk-averse and -prone decisions.