Bernadine C. Strik and Arthur Poole
Bernadine C. Strik and Arthur Poole
Timing and severity of pruning in a 30-year-old commercial `McFarlin' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) bed were studied. Treatments in 1989 and 1990 consisted of early or late pruning and heavy, moderate, light, or no pruning. Yield component data were collected in Fall 1989 and 1990, just before harvest. Time of pruning did not affect yield components. In 1989, the unpruned and lightly pruned vines had a higher total plant fresh weight, fewer berries, higher berry yield, longer and more fruiting uprights, and fewer nonfruiting uprights (U,) compared with moderately or heavily pruned vines. Average length of UN and anthocyanin content of berries in 1989 were not influenced by pruning. In 1990, the effects of pruning severity were similar to 1989. In 1990, unpruned vines had a lower percent fruit set and berries contained less anthocyanin than pruned vines. Annual pruning with conventional systems in use decreases yield.
Bernadine C. Strik and Arthur P. Poole
The effect of sand application to `Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) was studied for 3 years in a 24-year-old (site 1) and an 8-year-old (site 2) commercial planting. Treatments in Apr. 1991 consisted of a onetime sand application of 1.3 or 2.5 cm on the surface of the cranberry bed and a nonsanded control. Yield component data were collected in Fall 1991 through 1993. In 1991, 2.5 cm of sand reduced yield 50% at site 2 compared to the nonsanded control. At site 1, the 2.5-cm sand depth did not reduce yield, while the 1.3-cm-deep application improved yield 18% compared to the control. The year after sanding (1992), yields equalized across all treatments at both sites. In 1993, there was no significant difference in yield for treatments at site 1. At site 2, however, heavy sanding reduced yield 63% compared to 1.3 cm of sand. Our work suggests that heavy sanding is not recommended for `Stevens' cranberry beds in Oregon.
Kris L. Wilder, Timothy L. Righetti and Arthur Poole
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is an important crop in Oregon. However, nutrient critical levels have not been established. Since developing nutrient critical levels usually requires time-consuming and expensive field trials, we chose to use the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), which can use survey data to determine critical levels. We analyzed 139 cranberry samples collected from the southern Oregon coastal area over a three-year period. Leaf concentrations for N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, B, and Zn in bearing uprights collected in mid-August were matched with the corresponding yields. DRIS was employed to obtain norms and critical levels from this survey data. To test our DRIS norms and critical levels, we evaluated two published experiments (Torio and Eck, 1969 and Medappa and Dana, 1969) where fertility treatments altered mineral concentrations and affected yield. Both ratio-based and critical concentration diagnoses were useful. Changes in the Nutrient Imbalance Index was a good predictor of yield response.
Bernadine C. Strik, Teryl R. Roper, Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Joan R. Davenport and Arthur P. Poole
This research was undertaken to document the extent of biennial bearing in flowering uprights by American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait) cultivar and growing region. Seven cultivars were studied: three found in all states considered (Massachusetts, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Oregon), two common to Massachusetts and New Jersey, and two other commercially grown cultivars, one each from Wisconsin and Oregon. There were significant cultivar, region, and cultivar × region interaction effects for both percent return bloom (%RB) and percent return fruit (%RF). Percent RB ranged from 74% for `Ben Lear' in Wisconsin to 14% for `Howes' in New Jersey. `Ben Lear' differed the most in %RB among regions, from 74% in Wisconsin to 14% in Massachusetts. However, in some regions, especially in Wisconsin, many blossoms did not set viable fruit. There was no significant difference in %RB among cultivars grown in Massachusetts or Oregon; however, cultivars grown in these regions did differ in %RF.
Kris L. Wilder, J. M. Hart, Arthur Poole and David D. Myrold
Little work has been done to establish the rate and timing of nitrogen fertilizer applications to optimize return from fertilizer expenditures and minimize potential for ground and surface water pollution in Oregon cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Predicting cranberry N requirements is difficult because cranberries require little N and soil tests for N are not helpful for perennial crops, especially when grown in shallow sandy soils. We used 15N-labeled ammonium sulfate to measure both plant uptake and movement of fertilizer N in a south coastal Oregon cranberry bed. A bed planted to the Stevens variety was fertilized with 15N-labelled ammonium sulfate at two rates (18 kg/ha and 36 kg/ha) applied at five phonological stages: popcorn, hook, flowering, early bud, and late bud. Plant N uptake and translocation were measured throughout the growing season in uprights, flowers, berries, and roots, Initial results indicate that when N was applied at popcorn stage approximately 12% of the N was present in the above-ground vegetative biomass at harvest. Incorporation of fertilizer N into the duff and mineral soil was measured. An estimate of fertilizer N leaching was made by trapping inorganic N below the root zone using ion exchange resin bags.
J. M. Hart, Arthur Poole, Kris L. Wilder and B. C. Strik
Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) require low rates of N fertilizer compared to many horticultural and agronomic crops. Excess N promotes vegetative growth at the expense of yield. Growers desire information about N fertilization to achieve optimum yields without overgrowth, Little information has been published about N rate and timing influence on cranberries in south coastal Oregon. An N rate and timing field experiment with Crowley and Stevens cultivars was established to answer grower questions. N was applied at 0, 18, 36 and 54 kg/ha in various combinations at popcorn (white bud), hook, fruitset, early bud, and late bud. Yield, yield components, (fruit set, number of flowering and total uprights, berry size, flowers per upright and the proportion of uprights that flower), vegetative growth and anthocyanin content were measured. After 2 years of treatments, N rate or timing had little influence on yield or yield components in the previously heavily fertilized Crowley bed. In the previously lightly fertilized Stevens bed, N rate increased yield, vine growth, and the number of flowering uprights, N timing also influenced the number of flowering uprights. The total number of uprights was influenced by the interaction of N rate and timing.
Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Joan R. Davenport, Kim Patten, Teryl R. Roper, Bernadine C. Strik, Nicholi Vorsa and Arthur P. Poole
Fruit mass development in `Crowley', `Pilgrim', and `Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) was compared in five states for two seasons. Comparing all locations, `Stevens' and `Pilgrim' cranberries had similar growth curves with a faster growth rate than that of `Crowley'. Regional differences in fruit development were observed. Shorter growing seasons, especially in Wisconsin, were compensated for by more rapid growth rates. Conversely, low initial mass and slower growth rates were compensated for by the longer growing season in the Pacific Northwest. Solar radiation intensity accounted for little of the variability in fruit growth. Neither growing degree days nor numbers of days were good predictors of cranberry fruit fresh mass accumulation. Instead, numbers of moderate temperature days (between 16 and 30 °C) appeared to be key, accounting for greater than 80% of the variability in cranberry fresh biomass accumulation. The most rapid growth rates occurred when temperatures were in this range. High temperatures were limiting in New Jersey while low temperatures were limiting in Oregon and Washington. In one of two seasons, low temperatures were limiting in Wisconsin: accumulation of 0.5 g fresh mass took 11 d longer. Massachusetts had the fewest periods of temperature extremes in both seasons, resulting in the shortest number of days required to accumulate 0.5 g fresh mass.