Campanula `Birch Hybrid' has an obligate vernalization requirement, though little is known about the vernalization response as a function of temperature and duration. The objective of this study was to characterize the qualitative and quantitative effects of exposure to -2.5 to 20 °C on C. `Birch Hybrid' flowering. Plugs were bulked at 20 °C for 4 weeks and then transferred to -2.5, 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 or 20 °C for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 12 weeks. Plugs were then potted and grown at 20 °C under 16-h photoperiod. Nine plants were used per treatment. Date of first open flower and the number of open flowers and flowering nodes 7 d later were recorded. No plants flowered after 0 or 3-week treatments. One plant held at 20 °C flowered and no plants flowered after exposure to 17.5 °C. After 5 weeks at 0 to 7.5 °C, 100% of plants flowered with the fastest flowering after 2.5 to 7.5 °C. The number of flowering nodes and open flowers were similar for plants held at -2.5 to 10 °C for 5 weeks. All plants flowered following 7 weeks at -2.5 to 12.5 °C, though flowering was quickest after exposure to 2.5 to 7.5 °C. After 7 weeks, plants held at -2.5 to 10 °C produced similar number of flowering nodes and open flowers. Following 9 weeks, all plants at -2.5 to 12.5 °C flowered and 2.5 to 7.5 °C treated plants flowered first. The number of flowering nodes was uniform across -2.5 to 12.5 °C and the highest number of flowers was produced at 12.5 °C. All plants held at -2.5 °C died after 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, all plants flowered following 0 to 15 °C. However, following 15 °C, plants produced fewer flowers and flowering nodes. Overall, the optimal vernalization response was between 0 to 7.5 °C.
The steady-state oxygen concentration at which blueberry fruit began to exhibit anaerobic carbon dioxide production. (i.e., the RQ breakpoint) was determined for fruit held at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 C using a modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) system. As fruit temperature decreased, the RQ breakpoint occurred at lower oxygen concentrations. The decrease in the RQ breakpoint oxygen is thought to be due to a decreasing oxygen demand of the cooler fruit.
The decrease in oxygen demand and concomitant decrease in oxygen flux would have resulted in a decrease in the difference in the oxygen concentrate on between the inside and outside of the fruit and thus decreased the minimum amount of oxygen tolerated. The implications on MAP strategies will be discussed.
A method was developed to measure transpiration rates and apparent water-vapor permeability coefficients (P'H2O) of detached fruit using an analytical balance equipped with a humidity chamber, wide-range humidity-generating and sensing devices, and a datalogger. The system was designed to monitor weight changes with time and, hence, weight loss of individual fruit during exposure to specific relative humidities (RHs) and temperatures. Weight loss was corrected for loss due to respiratory exchange of 02 and CO2 before calculating P'H2O. Values of P'H2O for tomatoes obtained using this method over periods of 5 minutes to 24 hours ranged from 3 to 12 nmol·cm-2·s-1·kPa-1 at 20C, depending on the experimental conditions. These values are similar to previously published values and to those obtained in a conventional weight-loss experiment, which involved intermittent weighing. P'H20 for tomatoes dropped ≈15% in 24 hours. P'H20 increased with a transient increase in RH; the extent of the increase was variable from fruit to fruit, ranging from 5% to 100% over 30% to 90% RH. The change was reversible in that P'H2O increased and decreased within minutes following shifts in RH. Similar changes were found for strawberry P'H20. The increase in P'H2O may be due, in part, to a direct effect of water vapor on the water transport properties of the cuticular polymer and surface temperature depression as a result of evaporative cooling. At 50% RH and 20C, water vapor diffuses from tomatoes 50 times faster than O2 enters on a molar basis. This information will be useful for modeling RH changes in modified-atmosphere packages.
Shelf life (defined by visual quality) of freshly harvested greenhouse-grown sweet basil was maintained for an average of ≈ 12 days at 15C. Chilling injury symptoms were severe at storage temperatures of 5C and below. Shelf life was found to be only 1 and 3 days at 0 and 5C, respectively. Moderate chilling injury was noted at 7.5 and 10C. Harvesting sweet basil later in the day (i.e., 1800 or 2200 hr) increased shelf life by almost 100% when harvested shoots were held at 10, 15, and 20C, compared to harvesting at 0200 or 0600 hr. However, the time of day of harvest did not alter the development of visual chilling injury symptoms or improve shelf life at 0 or 5C.
The feasibility of controlling relative humidity in modified atmosphere packages using compounds possessing Type III sorption isotherm behavior was studied. Ten grams each of dry sorbitol, xylitol, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 sealed with one maturegreen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit at 20C in simulated packages for 48 days resulted in stable relative humidities of ≈75%, 80%, 75%, 85%, and 35%, respectively. Relative humidity was a function of the ratio of chemical to fruit mass. Relative humidities within control packages were in the range of 96% to 100% throughout the experiments. A simple system that uses spunbonded polyethylene pouches for the application of this humidity control method to packages is described. The storage life of packaged red-ripe tomato fruit at 20C was extended from 5 days using no pouch to 15 to 17 days with a pouch containing NaCl, mainly by retardation of surface mold development.
The effect of controlled atmospheres (CA) on the development of injury symptoms and storage life of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cuttings was assessed. Three-node basil stem cuttings were placed in micro-perforated low-density polyethylene packages and stored in the dark at 20 °C in a continuous stream of nitrogen containing the following percentages of O2/CO2:21/0 (air), 21/5, 21/10, 21/15, 21/20, 21/25, 0.5/0, 0.5/5, 1/0, 1.5/0, 2/0, 1/5, 1.5/5, 1.5/7.5, and 1.5/10. Cuttings stored in an atmosphere of <1% O2 developed dark, water-soaked lesions on young tissue after only 3 days. Fifteen percent or more CO2 caused brown spotting on all tissue. Sweet basil stored in 1.5% O2/0% CO2 had an average shelf life of 45 days compared with 18 days for the air control. None of the CA combinations tested alleviated chilling injury symptoms induced by storage at 5 °C.
The effect of harvest dates between September and December on regrowth after storage of field-grown Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg × Sweet `Sunburst' and `Sunray', Geum quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw', Gypsophila paniculata L. `Snowflake', Iberis sempervirens L. `Snowflake', and Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem. crowns was determined. After 0 to 7 months of storage at 0C, stored crowns were repotted and grown in a greenhouse. Plants from later harvests were of higher quality than those from earlier harvests, showing higher rates of survival after longer storage periods, less mold development in storage, and stronger regrowth after storage. Late field harvest is recommended for optimum storage quality.
Field-grown plants of Alcearosea (L.) Cav. (hollyhock), Asparagusofficinalis L., Coreopsisgrandiflora Hogg ex Sweet `Sunray', Dicentraspectabilis (L.) Lem. (bleeding heart), Gaillardia ×grandiflora Van Houtte `Baby Cole', Lupinuspolyphyllus Lindl. `Russell Hybrids', and Phloxsubulata L. `Emerald Pink' harvested as bare-root crowns in late fall were packaged in polyethylene-lined crates and stored for 6 months. There were no significant differences in the regrowth performance of any of the perennials following storage at 0 or -2C. The amount of surface covered by fungal hyphae (surface mold) increased more than 2-fold between 4 and 6 months of storage at 0 or -2C on all species. Dicentraspectabilis and Alcea rosea were most susceptible to mold growth during storage. Alcea rosea and Coreopsis grandiflora stored poorly at all storage temperatures. In a second experiment, the regrowth performance of Artemisiaschmidtiana Maxim `Silver Mound', Asclepiastuberosa L., Asternovae-angliae L., Centranthusruber (L.) DC., Chrysanthemum superbum Bergmans ex. J. Ingram, Dicentraeximia (Ker-Gawl.) Torr., Dicentraspectabilis, Geumquellon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw', Hosta `Honeybells', and Lupinuspolyphyllus was tested following 6 months of storage at temperatures between -10 and +5C. Regrowth performance was generally similar at -2, 0, and 5C for most species. The results indicated, however, that Centranthus ruber and Chrysanthemum ×superbum should not be stored at temperatures of -2C or below. Sufficient etiolated growth developed for most species when stored at 2C or above to cause problems during shipping, handling, and potting. In general, mold growth on crowns during storage did not reduce regrowth performance of the species tested.
Modified-atmosphere (MA) packages for fruits and vegetables are traditionally designed by matching product respiration rate with permeation of the packaging film to achieve a desired gas composition in the package. However, this design procedure is adequate only in ideal situations. We have previously shown that actual O2 partial pressures were distributed around targeted levels due to variation in product respiration rate and film permeability. In some cases, injurious levels of O2 were generated as a result of this variation. We have developed a procedure that incorporates variation of product respiration rate and uses a statistical approach to predict appropriate target levels. This approach includes a user-based decision as to how many packages with O2 partial pressures below the lower O2 limit for product injury can be tolerated. We have incorporated this approach into a user-friendly computer software using turbo pascal in MS DOS environment. This software is menu-driven and has graphical support. Use of the software will be demonstrated with examples.
Flexible modified-atmosphere (MA) packages of fruits and vegetables can shrink or expand with time depending on the net flux of gas from the package to the surroundings. Excessive shrinkage can cause product damage if the tissue is fragile. However, reducing free volume should reduce the amount moisture loss and condensation. It would be useful to understand the factors that determine the rate and direction of free volume changes when applying MA packaging technology to fruits and vegetables. Free volume was measured in packages using a simple procedure based on dilution of injected ethane gas. The free volume in low-density polyethylene packages containing cut broccoli at 0C changed from 284 cc to 148 cc in 33 days. A computer model was developed to estimate changes in package free volume for different situations. The model predicted that the rate of shrinkage will be less if packages are flushed with a low permeable gas. Flushing with a highly permeable gas such as CO2 will increase the rate of shrinkage. The rate of package shrinkage will be less if made with films that have low permeability to N2.