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Aroldo Rumayor Flores and Andres Martinez C.

During 1993–94, in an area with a subtropical climate, 1500 m elevation, and 300 mm of precipitation, an experiment with `Golden Delicious' apples/MM.111 under irrigation was conducted with 11 treatments with three replications in a completely randomized complete-block design: T1, manual defoliation (27 Sept.); T2, 1% CuSO4 (15 Oct.); T3, 2% CuSO4 + Promesol (acido 2,3,4 trihydroxipentanodioico) (22 Oct.); T4, 1% CuSO4 + 0.1% Atlox; T5, 1% CuSO4 + 0.2% Atlox; T6, 1% CuSO4 + 0.1% Frigate; T7, 1% CuSO4 + 2% urea; T8, 2% sulfur; T9, 500 ppm tiadizuron + 1% carboxil; T4–T9, defoliation 12 Nov.; T10, control (natural defoliation on 3 Dec.); T11, 2% ZnSO4 + 0.07 carboxil (8 Nov.). All treatments received Atlox surfactant at 0.1%, except T4 and T5. On 11 Mar. 1994, trees received an application of 0.5% Dormex + 4% dormant oil. The percentage of terminal budbreak on 1-year-old wood was superior for T6, T9, and T11 compared with the control (11.7% budbreak on 2-year-old wood) for all treatments (except T1 and T3); all the treatments were superior to the control (47% budbreak), especially T2 (72.6%) and T9 (70.0%). The percentage of fruit set was similar in all treatments with the control (15.0%), except in T2 and T3, which set 7% more fruit.

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Aroldo Isudro Rumayor Flores*, Jose Antonio Vázquez Ramos, Martínez Cano Andres, and Borrego Escalante Fernando

In hybrids of apple (Malus × domestica Bork.) subjected to study phenological in Aguanueva, Coahuila, Mexico, their requirements of chill hours (CH), heat units (HU), bud breaking flower and vegetative % (BB) for good adaptation to warm milder climate, bloom period (BP), and vegetative period (VP), were determined using the Methodology of Identification of New Cultivars of Fruit Breeding (Ploudiv 1983). They were material with requirements of cold from 200 up to 650 (CH) when they underwent a test of controlled conditions of (CH). These materials are; AR-109 (200 CH), AR-106 (300 CH), AR-108 (300 CH), AR-147 (300 CH), AR-144 (550 CH), and AR-a60 (650 CH), while the control Mutant Aguanueva II (500 CH). Under winter conditions of the year 2000 with so slone 168.76 (CH), some materials showed a bud break superior to the control. The bud break dates understand between 30 days before the witness Aguanueva II, as the hybrid AR-147 and 34 days later in the case of the hybrid AR-151, location this way to the materials as: Early with regard to the control; AR-16-S (24 days), AR-130 (14 days) and AR-147 (30 days). Similar to the control; AR-144, AR-103 and AR-127. Later than the control; AR-111 and AR-103-B. since they don't require spray bud breaking res compounds for their bud break and they have bloom period (BP) of 8 to 21 days. And when presenting low chill requirements they will be set fruit in a microclimate frost-free and growing and have their cultivation in a mild winter climate.