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  • Author or Editor: Arnoldo Michel-Rosales x
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The most common spread of this species is sexual or by seed. In normal conditions, the germination of the seeds of Anonaceae can increase with pregerminative treatments prior to sowing. The objective was to determine the best pregerminative treatment to increase germination of soursop seeds. This study was carried out under the the dry, tropic conditions of Tecomán, Colima, Mexico. The experimental design was completely random with 12 treatments: 1) dip in water for 24 hours; 2) dip in water for 24 hours + gibberellic acid (GA3) at 350 ppm; 3) dip in water for 24 hours + GA3 at 500 ppm; 4) dip in water for 24 hours + GA3 at 1000 ppm; 5) mechanical scarification; 6) dip in water for 24 hours + mechanical scarification; 7) mechanical scarification + GA3 at 350 ppm; 8) mechanical scarification + GA3 at 500 ppm; 9) mechanical scarification + GA3 at 1000 ppm; 10) GA3 at 350 ppm; 11) GA3 at 500 ppm; and 12) GA3 at 1000 ppm; and control. There were four repetitions with 10 seeds in each experimental unit. The evaluated variables were the percentage of germination and the number of days from planting to emergence. To record results, analysis of variance and Tukey's test averages were used. The major percentage of germination resulted from the seeds treated with soaking in water for 24 hours plus GA3 to 350 ppm, dip in water for 24 hours plus scarification and GA3 at 1000 ppm, and equalized statistically to the control. For the number of days from planting to emergence, the treatment with mechanical scarification + GA3 at 500 ppm was statistically better. The use of gibberellic acid with mechanical scarification diminishes the dormancy of soursop seeds, producing plants in a relatively short period.

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At present, pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus Britt and Rose), a nonconventional crop and cactus native from Mexico, is considered very promising because of its high adaptability and tolerance to extreme agricultural conditions of tropical regions (poor soils, drought, and elevated temperatures), where they are cultivated. In addition, pitahaya fruit is well-accepted and identified as a nutraceutical food that lowers cholesterol and glucose levels in blood and might prevent stomach and colon cancers. However, little or no scientific information on chemical control alternatives of weeds in pitahaya commercial plantings have been generated. In this work, the phytotoxicity degree of seven commercial herbicides (metribuzin, glyphosate, glyphosate trimesium, paraqut, paraquat+diuron, atrazine, and halosulfuron methyl) in pitahaya plants grown under plant nursery conditions was assessed. A completely randomized design with 12 replications was used. The experimental unit was a flowerpot with a 5-month-old plants. The phytotoxicity degree was evaluated at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after application using the scale proposed by EWRS. The herbicides that caused injury to the plants were paraqua+diuron (79%) and paraquat (77%), respectively. Metribuzin, halosulfuron-methyl, and atrazine did not cause any injury to the plants.

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