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- Author or Editor: Arly Marie Drake x
Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a turfgrass species that is widely used on golf courses throughout the United States. In field settings, plants are often subjected to more than one stress at a time, and studying stresses independently is likely insufficient. Stresses, such as heat stress and salt stress, can affect plant hormone levels and, in turn, plant hormone levels can affect how well the plant tolerates stress. The objectives of the experiments were to determine if the levels of heat stress and salt stress used would be detrimental to creeping bentgrass health, and if applying plant growth regulators could improve plant health during stress. During the first experiment, creeping bentgrass was transplanted to hydroponics systems in two different growth chambers. One chamber was set to have day and night temperatures of 35 °C and 30 °C (heat stress), respectively, and the other had day and night temperatures of 25 °C and 20 °C, respectively. Within each chamber, one block received a 50 mM NaCl treatment (salt stress) and the other did not (control). The stress treatments were applied for 14 days. Results of the first experiment indicated that the treatments were sufficient to negatively affect creeping bentgrass growth and health as indicated by fresh shoot and root weights, tillering, electrolyte leakage, and total chlorophyll content (TCC). There were significant interactions of temperature × salt level detected for shoot and root weights and electrolyte leakage. Plants that were exposed to both heat stress and salt stress were more negatively affected than plants exposed to either heat stress or salt stress alone for all metrics except for tillering. The presence of salt reduced tillering regardless of the temperature regimen. During the second experiment, plants were treated the same, but the plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments were also applied. The PGR treatments consisted of two different gibberellic acid (GA) synthesis inhibitor products, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, two different rates of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an ethylene synthesis suppressor, and plants that were not treated with the PGR. In addition to the measurements of plant health and growth, dry shoot and root weights were measured. For the TCC, there was a two-way interaction between temperature × PGR treatment. For electrolyte leakage, there was a three-way interaction between temperature × salt level × PGR treatment. Combined heat stress and salt stress negatively affected all plants regardless of PGR treatment, but there were differences between PGR treatments. Plants treated with AVG exhibited improved health and growth compared with the other PGR treatments. These plants had the highest shoot and root masses. Plants treated with GA synthesis inhibitors had the lowest shoot and root masses as well as the lowest TCC when subjected to stress.