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- Author or Editor: Ariadna Monroy-Barbosa x
Phytophthora blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora capsici Leon., is a major disease that threatens production and long-term viability of the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) industry. For each phytophthora disease syndrome such as root rot, foliar blight, and stem blight separate and independent resistant systems have evolved in the host. In addition, several physiological races of the pathogen have been identified. A novel, effective, and accurate screening technique is described that allows for multiple races to be evaluated on a single plant of C. annuum. The P. capsici resistant line Criollo de Morelos-334, a susceptible cultivar, Camelot, and three New Mexico Recombinant Inbred Lines, -F, -I, -S, were used to evaluate the new technique for phytophthora foliar blight multiple-race screening. Using three P. capsici physiological races, no interaction among the physiological races was observed with this technique. This novel technique provided a rapid disease screen evaluating multiple physiological races for phytophthora foliar blight resistance in a single chile pepper plant and can assist plant breeders in selecting for disease-resistant plants.
Phytophthora capsici Leon., causal agent of phytophthora root rot, is one of the most devastating pathogens attacking chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Many studies have tried to better understand phytophthora resistance, but the genetic behavior is not completely understood. To determine if phytophthora root rot resistance in chile pepper is controlled by multiple alleles at a few loci, or multiple genes at different loci, five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were evaluated. The resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos-334, and the susceptible cultivar, Early Jalapeno, were hybridized to develop multiple RILs. After seven generations of selfing using the single seed descent method, four RILs were selected based on their phenotypic response to inoculation by five P. capsici isolates. The RILs were hybridized to each other to obtain F1 and F2 populations. The F2 populations were inoculated with single and a pair of races of P. capsici. When the F2 populations were inoculated with a single race, ratios of three resistant:one susceptible were obtained in the majority of the populations, indicating the action of an independent single gene. When the F2 populations were inoculated with a combination of two races, segregation ratios of 15 resistant:one susceptible were observed in two populations out of the four populations. The presence of susceptible individuals in all of the F2 population indicates that the resistant genes for the different P. capsici races are located at different loci. However, the rejection of the segregation ratio in one of the F2 population under a single race inoculation and in two of the F2 populations challenged with a combination of two races suggest a linkage phenomenon between some of the R genes. None of the RILs evaluated in this study displayed allelism for phytophthora root rot resistance.
Phytophthora foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici is a serious limitation to pepper (Capsicum annuum) production worldwide. Knowledge of the physiological race composition of isolates causing phytophthora foliar blight is necessary for success in breeding for disease resistance. The New Mexico recombinant inbred lines (NMRILs) effectively differentiated isolates from different geographical locations (i.e., Turkey, The Netherlands, Argentina, and two states in the United States) into 12 physiological races of P. capsici causing phytophthora foliar blight. This research demonstrates the use of the NMRILs to identify P. capsici foliar blight races and the importance of identifying the physiological races occurring in specific regions where a C. annuum cultivar will be grown. Knowing the physiological race(s) in a region will provide valuable information to formulate breeding strategies to deploy durable foliar blight resistance.