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  • Author or Editor: Anton M. Kofranek x
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Garden chrysanthemums [Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] are characterized by early flowering in September and October when grown out-of-doors and by rapid flowering in short days (SD). However, as rooted cuttings of these cultivars frequently have flower buds present at the time of planting, their true response to daylength cannot readily be determined. Vegetative shoots were obtained by growing rooted cuttings in long days (LD), removing the terminal bud, and then pinching the emerging side shoots at a very early stage. On transfer to SD, the vegetative secondary side shoots quickly initiated flower buds that developed to anthesis more rapidly than those of `Bright Golden Anne' (BGA), a lo-week response group cultivar. `Bandit', `Buckeye', `Compatriot', `Freedom', `Jackpot', and `Sunburst Cushion' appeared to be in the 7-week response group, with `Baby Tears' in the 6-week and `Powder River' in the 8-week response groups. All cultivars rapidly initiated flower buds in LD and, although they produced significantly more leaves than in SD, flower initiation began within ≈13 LD from pinching. When pinched twice and grown using black cloth in summer, garden chrysanthemums can form attractive, uniformly flowering pot plants. Their rapid-flowering characteristic could also be of value in breeding programs for cut-flower chrysanthemums.

Free access

Abstract

Net photosynthesis, as measured by dry matter changes, was reduced following the dark periods when foliage plants were grown in extended, alternate dark-light cycles. Longer dark periods resulted in greater reduction; however, recovery was observed if the light duration was increased. No visual quality reduction was observed in Tradescantia fluminensis Veil and Asparagus setaceus Jessop which was grown under 14 days light: 14 days dark cycles for 84 days. Similarly, the quality of mature leaves and stems of Philodendron scandens Subsp. oxycardium (Schott) Bunt grown under 24 days dark: 24 days light cycles for 96 days was not impaired; however, new shoots and leaves were abnormal. Dry matter partitioning of Philodendron was affected by light conditions and growth activity. In plants with no active growth, the dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots was increased under adequate light condition and decreased under darkness. Stems were stronger sinks than leaves. In all treatments, when new shoots started their active growth, they became the main carbohydrate sinks with a concomitant reduction of weight of the mature organs. Reduction in percent dry matter following the lowering of the light intensity was observed. Determining and measuring the critical percent dry matter at which plant injury occurs are suggested as practical methods to evaluate the plant’s condition and how it may respond during and after the marketing period.

Open Access

Abstract

Foliar spray of dikegulac-sodium in a 20% formulation (Atrinal) at concentration of 0.4 and 0.6% active ingredient in aqueous solutions were found to effectively pinch ‘California Sunset’, ‘Chimes’, ‘Dogwood’, ‘Gloria’, ‘Knute Erwin’ and ‘Rose Queen’ evergreen azaleas (Rhododendron simsii Planch.) but not ‘Red Wing’. Pinching was effective under several environmental conditions but was enhanced by late afternoon applications when temperature and light were lower and the relative humidity higher. Atrinal was effective on both vegetative and early reproductive shoots.

Open Access

Abstract

Frequent irrigation regimes, and cool storage increased the sensitivity of carnation cut flowers to ethylene which was reflected by a shorter residual flower life. A combination of cytokinins, 0.23 m<sc>M</sc> kinetin or isopentyl adenine (IPA), with 5% w/v sucrose reduced the sensitivity to ethylene and increased longevity 2 to 2.6 times, respectively. The reversible and irreversible wilting response to ethylene is discussed.

Open Access

Abstract

The relative efficiency of several types of fluorescent lamps (General Electric) for dry matter production was examined both experimentally and by mathematical calculations. The highest yield of Tradescantia fluminensis plants per electrical energy input unit was obtained with Cool White lamps. In comparison to Cool White lamps the yield under other lamps was: Daylight = 88%; Cool White Deluxe = 73%; Plant Light = 72%; Pink + Blue = 36%. Similar results were found using calculations based on the action spectriim for photosynthesis of an “average leaf” proposed by McCree (8), the spectral energy distribution curves of the different lamps and the illuminance (lux) at the plant level. Measurement of the relative efficiency based on input wattage of Cool White (General Electric) and Agro-lite (Westinghouse, F-40/AGRO) fluorescent lamps for dry matter production of 9 foliage plant species showed an average 9% advantage of the Cool White lamp. We propose that fluorescent lamp evaluation for plant growth be standardized using McCree's or Balegh and Biddulph's equation for predicted photosynthetic efficiency.

Open Access

Abstract

Pulsing gladiolus stems at 21°C with 20% sucrose in combination with AgNO3 before storage of 7 or 10 days resulted in greater floret opening and size than those not pulsed. A silver treatment alone was not effective. The sucrose fulfills the requirements for a carbohydrate source and osmoticum which are necessary for floret growth and development. This treatment with sucrose is recommended prior to shipping or storage of gladiolus for long periods.

Open Access

Abstract

Splitting and out-rolling of the stem bases in cut flowers of Hippeastrum Xhybridum was prevented by a 1-day-pulse treatment with 0.125 m sucrose. Pulsing also slightly increased vase life and promoted the opening of all the flower buds on the stem.

Open Access

Abstract

Cut flowering stems of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) in demineralized water were treated at daily intervals with pulses of silver thiosulphate (STS) at 4 mM for 10 minutes or 2 mM for 60 minutes until just before the end of their natural life and were returned to water for observation of flower senescence. Treatments with STS increased flower life most effectively when applied on the day the flowers were cut. It was also effective if applied for up to 3 days after cutting, but less so if applied after this time. The longevity of flowers pulsed with STS compared favorably with those treated continuously with a commercial preservative.

Open Access

Abstract

Thirty-eight cultivars of Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. commonly grown in year-round flower production programs were grown continuously in long days. After 19 weeks of growth, 2 apparently were still vegetative, whereas 36 had formed flower buds; these failed to develop to anthesis and formed “crown buds”. The average number of leaves produced before the terminal flower bud (“long-day leaf number,” LDLN) ranged from 18.8 for ‘Bright Golden Anne’ to 78.2 for ‘Dignity.’ LDLN indicates whether a cultivar will form flower buds relatively early while growing in long days, and it identifies cultivars that need special attention during cutting production. It also could be used to control flowering in “timed-pinch” programs, and to characterize cultivars for breeding programs.

Open Access

Abstract

Hybrid lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflora (Raf.) Shinn.] was evaluated as cut flower and flowering pot plants. Lisianthus is a day neutral summer blooming plant blooming earlier at high growing temperatures (18°/26°C night/day) than at low temperatures. It is a slow growing plant, requiring about 5 to 6 months from sowing to flowering. Forcing period is about 2 months. Three color variants are available: blue, pink, and white. Only the blue and white are suitable as cut flowers. About 3 cut flower stems are produced per plant in the 1st harvesting cycle, and retaining the plant for a 2nd crop is considered uneconomical. Keeping quality of the cut flowers can be improved by pulsing for 24 hr with a solution containing 5% to 10% sugar, and desirable blue and pink pot plants were obtained by spraying with butanedioic mono-2.2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide, B-Nine). The white cultivar did not respond to daminozide but did respond to soil application of a-cyclopropyl-a-(p-methyoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimedine methyl (ancymidol). Flowering pot plants should be grown in the greenhouse until about half of the flower buds on the plants open, since buds do not develop properly under home conditions.

Open Access