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Anthony S. Aiello and William R. Graves

Amur maackia (Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim.) has potential as a more widely grown nursery crop, but little information is available on effects of media and nutrition on growth of containerized plants. We compared growth of seedlings in five media and determined growth responses to two fertility regimes. After 35 days, total dry mass of plants grown in 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite (by volume) or in 5 sphagnum peat: 3 perlite: 2 soil was 3.2 times the dry mass of plants grown in three soilless media that contained composted bark; and after 70 days, growth was greater in the medium with soil than in 1 perlite: 1 vermiculite. Plants grown in solution culture with N at 0.75 mm had 1.8 times the dry mass of those provided N at 3.75 mm. Form of N in solution did not affect dry mass, but N content of leaves of plants grown with >50% \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document} was 1.3 times as great as that of plants provided only \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document}. Plants in containers attained maximal dry mass when fertilized with solutions containing N at 10.8 mm from \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document}, \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document}, and urea or N at 7.5 mm with equal amounts of \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} and \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document}. None of the soilless media used consistently evoked growth similar to growth of plants in the soil-based medium.

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Anthony S. Aiello and Robert J. Joly

Redbud (Cercis canadensis) is known to be very susceptible to injury by road de-icing salts. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the effects of sodium chloride on net CO2 assimilation (A), conductance (g), transpiration (E), and leaf area expansion (LAE) of hydroponically grown redbud seedlings. Eight week-old seedlings were exposed to 0, 4500, and 9000ppm NaCl in the hydroponic growth solution. A, g, E, and LAE were measured for seven consecutive days during treatment application.

A, g, E, an LAE all decreased with increased salt stress. By the seventh day, growth in NaCl at 4500 and 9000 ppm resulted in reductions in A from that that of the control by 34% and 63%, respectively. For the medium treatment, g and E had decreased by 70% over control rates, and by 85% over control for the high treatment. For the 0, 4500, and 9000ppm treatments, total leaf area increased by 68%, 46% and 28%, respectively, over the seven days of the experiment.

Further experiments will examine the effect of treatments on whole plant transpiration, water potential and osmotic potential and will measure the ability of seedlings to recover from treatments of various duration.

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Anthony S. Aiello and William R. Graves

Amur maackia (Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim.) has potential for use in small, urban, or cold landscapes. Although Amur maackia is becoming increasingly popular, plants are currently grown from open-pollinated seed populations, and there has been no selection of cultivars. We have addressed the effects of climate on growth and have begun field trials for selection of horticulturally superior genotypes. In May 1995, a field trial near Ames was begun with 337 plants. These were selected from more than 2000 greenhouse-grown seedlings to represent 32 half-sibling seed groups from 16 arboreta across North America. After two growing seasons, the increase in stem length among seed groups ranged from 3% to 75%. Survival rate did not vary with seed group. In a related study, 30 plants from six half-sibling groups have been established at each of 10 sites in the U.S. and four in Canada to assess effects of location on survival and growth. The influence of seed group on survival after 1 year varied with the trial site location. Survival among combinations of half-sibling group and trial location ranged from 0% to 100% (mean = 54%). Half-sibling group and trial location affected growth without interaction. The greatest growth across locations, an 83% increase in stem length, was shown by seeds that originated from a tree at the Arnold Arboretum. At the 14 locations, changes in stem length over half-sibling groups varied from <0% in Ithaca, N.Y., to 179% in Puyallup, Wash.

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Anthony S. Aiello and William R. Graves

Amur maackia (Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim.) is a nodulating leguminous tree with potential for increased use in cities and in the dry, cold climates of the upper Midwest and Great Plains of North America. There has been little research on nutritional requirements and production methods of this species. We determined the effect of growth medium and form of applied N on seedling growth. Amur maackia attained 3.3-times more dry mass in a medium of 5 peat: 3 perlite: 2 soil (by volume) and in coarse 1 vermiculite: 1 coarse perlite (v/v) than in three soil-less mixes that contained large proportions of composted bark. When seedlings were grown in an aerated nutrient solution, dry mass after 5 weeks was similar regardless of whether \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document}, \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document}, or a combination of these was supplied. But, leaf N content was 1.3-times greater in plants grown in a solution that contained at least 50% \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document} compared to plants provided with all \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document}. Plants grown in solution with 750 μm N had 1.8-times more dry mass than those grown in solution with 3.75 μm N. Seedlings grown for 70 days in 5 peat: 3 perlite: 2 soil (by volume) attained the greatest dry mass when fertilized with Excel all purpose fertilizer that contained N at 10.8 mol·m–3, or with a nutrient solution that contained N at a 1.5 μm, at least half of which was \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document}. For container-grown Amur maackia, we recommend using a soil-based medium and providing N as either all \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document} or as a mixture of \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document} and \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{{\bar{{\cdot}}}}\) \end{document}.

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William R. Graves and Anthony S. Aiello

Information on the heat resistance of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) could help develop stress-resistant Freeman maples (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray). Our first objective was to determine how 26, 30, 32, 34, and 36 °C in the root zone affect growth and water relations of plants from rooted cuttings of a silver maple clone indigenous to Mississippi (33.3 °N latitude). Fresh mass increased over time for plants at all temperatures and was highest for plants with root zones at 30 °C. Quadratic regression functions predicted maximal plant dry mass, leaf surface area, and stomatal conductance at 29, 29, and 28 °C, respectively. Stem xylem water potential (ψ) during the photoperiod decreased linearly with increasing root-zone temperature from -0.83 MPa at 26 °C to -1.05 MPa at 36 °C. Our second objective was to compare six clones of silver maple from the Mississippi location with six clones from 44.4 °N latitude in Minnesota for effects of 35 °C in the root zone on plant growth, stomatal conductance, and stem ψ. Provenance and temperature main effects were significant for most dependent variables, but there were no provenance × temperature interactions. Over both provenances, plant fresh and dry mass, leaf surface area, stomatal conductance, and stem ψ during the photoperiod were higher at 29 than 35 °C. Over both temperatures, plants from Minnesota clones had higher fresh and dry mass and more leaf surface area than plants from Mississippi clones. The lack of temperature × provenance interactions suggests that ecotypic or clinal variation in heat resistance is minimal and will not be useful for identifying superior genotypes for use in interspecific crosses with red maple (Acer rubrum L.).

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Anthony S. Aiello and William R. Graves

Hydroponic culture of tree seedlings is commonly used to study root biology; however, we have found that species differ in their responses to this practice. Responses of 2-week-old seedlings of Amur maackia (Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) to 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% Hoagland solution #1 were determined over 5 weeks. Dry mass of black locust increased with increasing solution concentration up to 50%. For Amur maackia, dry mass was highest in 5% solution, and dry mass declined by ≈50% in 50% solution. Purpling, chlorosis, and necrosis occurred on leaves of Amur maackia in solutions ≥10%, and symptom severity increased with solution strength. Amur maackia leaf ion content increased dramatically with increasing solution strength; for instance, leaf P content increased 688% as solution strength increased from 5% to 50%. No symptoms occurred on Amur maackia grown in a soil-based medium and irrigated with 50% solution. These data indicate that black locust can be grown hydroponically using standard methods. However, growth of Amur maackia is inhibited at high solution concentrations, suggesting a sensitivity to the availability of ions, and perhaps an enhanced ability to sequester ions from its media.

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Anthony S. Aiello, William R. Graves, and John E. Preece

Along with its horticultural uses, silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be grown for biomass in areas that vary greatly in annual rainfall and temperature. Silver maples from five provenances ranging from 33 to 46° N latitude were subjected to drought stress and to high root-zone temperature (RZT) in separate experiments to assess their suitability as biomass sources. In the drought experiment, control plants were irrigated every 2 days, while stressed plants were irrigated every 15 days. Initial results indicated provenance differences among control plants in dry mass, leaf area, and transpiration. Drought reduced growth and mitigated differences among provenances. Osmotic potential of leaves was higher in control plants than in drought-stressed plants. Plants from two provenances (33 and 44° N) were grown with RZT of 24 and 34 C for 3 weeks. Gain in fresh mass over time was reduced at 34 C for plants of both origins, but plant dry matter and leaf surface area were similar at the two RZT. Data collected to date suggest resistance to drought and high RZT is similar in plants of different provenances.

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James A. Zwack, Anthony S. Aiello, William R. Graves, and Alden M. Townsend

Freeman maples (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) are suspected to be more resistant to environmental stress than red maples (A. rubrum L.) because the lineage of Freeman maple includes silver maple (A. saccharinum L.). Little is known, however, about stress resistance of silver maple, and few data from direct comparisons of red and Freeman maples are available. Our objectives were to determine effects of root-zone heat on silver maples from northern and southern provenances, and to compare red and Freeman maple cultivars for resistance to rootzone heat stress and drought. There were no provenance-by-temperature interactions when silver maples from 33.3°N (Mississippi) and 44.4°N (Minnesota) latitude were grown with root zones at 29 and 35°C. Plants from 44.4°N latitude had 36% higher fresh mass, 43% more leaf surface area, and 35% and 59% higher, respectively, root and shoot dry masses than plants from 33.3°N latitude. Midday xylem water potential was 68% more negative for plants at 35°C than for plants at 29°C, and transpiration rate was 129% less for plants with root zones at 35°C than for those with root zones at 29°C. During preliminary work with Autumn Flame and Franksred red maple and Indian Summer and Jeffersred Freeman maples, rooted cuttings were grown in 25 and 37°C root zones under both drought and nondrought conditions. Reductions in growth at 37°C were similar for all cultivars. Results of this work could influence development, marketing, and use of Freeman maples.