A location-specific resource about crops called CropMAP was developed as part of a web-based project of the Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products. The prototype was developed from the 1992 agricultural census for the state of Indiana. Subsequently, the concept was extended to all states using the agricultural census data for 1997 and was recently updated by adding data from the 2007 census. CropMAP has been available on the NewCROP website but the resource has not been generally publicized. The objective of this communication is to make CropMAP better known since it has proven to be a useful and unique resource.
Jules Janick and Anna Whipkey
Antonio Figueira, Anna Whipkey, and Jules Janick
Cacao (Theobroma cacao) has long been considered a recalcitrant species in regard to microproagation. Although axillary shoots from cotyledonary nodes will proliferate and grow in vitro provided either cotyledons or roots are attached, excised shoots fail to grow in spite of conventional medium and hormonal modifications. Charcoal supplemented medium and rapid medium change are only marginally effective in inducing shoot elongation. The recalcitrance of cacao appear to be due to the presence of gums which are produced from stem tissues in response to wounding. However, growth of axillary cotyledonary shoots as well as mature shoots was obtained under conditions of high CO2 (20,000 ppm) and high light (quantum flux of 200 μmol m-2s-1) with or without sugar. Under these conditions leaves develop and shoots elongate which can be subdivided and subcultured. Shoots root under these conditions in vitro. We hypothesize that growth of cacao shoots in response to high CO2 is due to translocation of metabolizes from photosynthesizing leaves and stems.
Anna Whipkey, James E. Simon, and Jules Janick
NewCROP (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop) is a crop resource online program that serves Indiana, the United States, and the world. This crop information system provides useful resources to encourage and assist new rural-based industries and to enhance agricultural sustainability and competitiveness. The NewCROP site currently averages 150,000 hits per month. Indiana CropMAP is the first module in a proposed nationwide, site-specific, retrievable system that will serve the crop information needs of individual growers, marketers, processors, government agencies, cooperative extension personnel, and industry. For each county in Indiana, users can access the most recent US agriculture statistics, county extension offices, lists of crops that are currently grown, recommended alternate crops, and experimental crops. Detailed crop information, much of it specific to Indiana, can be accessed directly or through a crop search. The New Crop Compendium CD-ROM was produced by the Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products in cooperation with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The New Crop Compendium CD-ROM, a searchable resource of new crop information, was edited by Jules Janick and Anna Whipkey and contains the entire text and figures from the proceedings of the three National New Crop Symposia: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). 1990. Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.; J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). 1993. New Crops. Wiley, New York; and J. Janick (ed.). 1996. Progress in New Crops. ASHS Press, Alexandria, Va. The New Crop Compendium provides a valuable source of information on new, specialty, neglected, and underutilized crops for scientists, growers, marketers, processors, and extension personnel. It employs an intuitive, easy to use interface. Purchase information can be found at the following url: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/compendium/order.html.
Jules Janick, Christiane Cabral Velho, and Anna Whipkey
Mature seed weight of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) averaged 25 mg (dry weight), of which 55.0% was seedcoat, 38.5% megagametophyte, and 6.4% embryo. Fatty acid (FA) content (dry-weight basis) was 17.5% for whole seed, 0.4% for seedcoat, 36.2% for megagametophyte, and 51.2% for embryo. Distribution of FAs (16:0; 18:0; 18:1; 18:2; 18:3 Δ5,9,12; 18:3 Δ9,12,15; 20:0; and 20:3) differed in seedcoat, megagametophyte, and embryo, but 18:2 was the predominant FA in all tissues. Seed development was analyzed for 110 days from 25 July, the year following pollination. Embryos could be macroscopically observed on or about day 30. Embryo dry weight, length, and FA accumulation increased until about day 50 and then remained constant. Embryo density decreased from day 30 to 50 and then stabilized at ≈1.0366 g·ml-1 or 10% sucrose equivalent. Excised zygotic embryos did not germinate in vitro until after day 51; germination increased linearly after this date, reaching 80% by day 72.
Antonio Figueira, Anna Whipkey, and Jules Janick
Axillary shoots of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), induced in vitro with cytokinins (BA or TDZ), elongated and produced leaves only in the presence of cotyledons and/or roots. Detached axillary shoots, which do not grow in `vitro under conventional tissue culture protocols, rooted with auxin and developed normally in vivo. Detached axillary shoots from cotyledonary nodes and single-node cuttings from mature plants were induced to elongate and produce normal leaves in the presence of 20,000 ppm CO2 and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 150 to 200 μmol·s-1·m-2. Subculture nodal cuttings continued to elongate and produce leaves under elevated CO2 and light levels, and some formed roots. Subculture of microcuttings under CO2 enrichment could be the basis for a rapid system of micropropagation for cacao. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl) -1 H -purin-6-amine (BA); 1 H -indole-3-butyric `acid (IBA); α -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); thidiazuron (TDZ).
Jules Janick, Anna Whipkey, S.L. Kitto, and J. Frett
Shoot proliferation of Japanese plum yew [Cephalotoxus harringtonia (Forbes) K. Koch] derived either from a seedling or from a mature clone was achieved in a medium based on Murashige and Skoog salts supplemented with vitamins and casein hydrolysate in the presence of 10% (v/v) coconut water. Rooting was unsuccessful from microcuttings proliferated on agar-based medium, but, when cultured in liquid medium on membrane rafts, detached shoots rooted under mist in greenhouse conditions with or without auxin treatments. Rooted microcuttings successfully acclimated to greenhouse conditions.
Jules Janick, James E. Simon, Anna Whipkey, and Ben Alkire
NewCROP (New Crops Resource On-line Program) is an Internet resource (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop) developed by the Indiana Center for New Crops and Plant Products to deliver instant topical information on the subject of fiber, energy, and specialty crops. NewCROP includes CropSEARCH (an index to food and feed crops of the world, including taxonomic information, uses, and economic importance), FactSHEETS (in-depth articles on selected crops), NewCROP Import–Export (importation permits, phytosanitation certificates, quarantine and inspection information), Organizations (listings of crop organizations, societies, and interest groups), FamineFOODS (includes about 1250 species that are consumed in times of food scarcity), and FarmMARKET (listing locations of United States farmers' markets). The web site also includes new crop bibliographies, directories of new crop researchers, announcements of pertinent up-coming symposia and crop conventions, the New Crop Center newsletters, and activities of the Indiana Center for New Crops. A search engine is provided for quick information retrieval from the system. An electronic bulletin board, NewCROP LISTSERV is maintained for posting queries and messages to subscribers. We are planning to incorporate material from three books (>1930 pages and 6000 index entries) derived from New Crops symposia and published as Advances in New Crops (1990), New Crops (1993), and Progress in New Crops (1996). The NewCROP digital information program is interlinked with FAO's EcoCROP system and the Australian New Crops Programme, as part of a developing world-wide crop information network.
Anna Whipkey, Kirby Kalbaugh, Audra Franz, and Jules Janick
An image database was developed for three illustrated recensions of the non-illustrated manuscript of Dioscorides entitled Πɛρí ύλης ιατρικης (De Materia Medica in Latin; On Medical Matters in English) written in approximately Year 65: Juliana Anicia Codex (JAC) or Codex Vindobonensis produced in Year 512, Codex Neapolitanus (NAP) produced in the late sixth or early seventh century, and Morgan 652 (M652) produced between 927 and 985. The database that brings up images and accompanying records is searchable by herbal, common name in English and Greek (Roman alphabet), binomial (current and in source document), and botanical family. In addition, a Venn diagram of images in the three herbals permits a search for images that are common or unique among the three herbals. The database makes it possible to locate images in herbals written in Greek that are difficult to access and will be useful to horticulturists and herbal scholars. The database can be accessed at <http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/herbalimages>.