Eucodonia ‘Adele’ initiates seasonal shoot growth from a scaly rhizome. Larger rhizome segments (>2.5 cm) produced shoots at a greater percentage compared with smaller rhizome segments. Shoots produced on larger segments were initiated sooner and had a longer length. However, when shoot formation efficiency was calculated as the number of potential shoots per original stock rhizome, smaller rhizome segments were more efficient, producing three to four times as many shoots. Rhizome segments (2.5 cm) soaked overnight in benzyladenine (BA) produced three to four times more shoots per rhizome (four shoots) compared with untreated or water-soaked rhizomes (0.3 and 0.7 shoot, respectively). The scaly rhizome consists of a central stem-like core surrounded by numerous leaf-like scales. Scales appear to be storage leaf tissue based on anatomy and presence of numerous amyloplasts. New shoots initiate as axillary shoots formed from the central core at the scale attachment. Isolated individual scales also have the capacity for adventitious shoot formation, but only form in about 25% of isolated scales. Leaf cuttings were capable of producing adventitious shoots, roots, and rhizomes. Untreated petiole and lamina cut leaf cuttings formed approximately three rhizomes per leaf cutting compared with less than one adventitious shoot per leaf cutting. Benzyladenine-treated leaf cuttings did not show an increase in rhizome initiation, but soaking lamina cut leaf cuttings in water or BA increased shoot formation to ∼1.5 shoots per cutting. This work with isolated rhizome segments and leaf cuttings presents efficient systems for regenerating rhizomes that can be used to produce stock plants for a stem cutting system for Eucodonia ‘Adele’ as a seasonal pot plant.
‘Crimson Cabernet’ grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds showed physiological dormancy and germinated at ∼60% after 60 days of chilling stratification. Fresh seeds harvested after physiological maturity and sown without drying failed to germinate after 30 days when sown on agar. In agar-sown fresh seeds cut at the distal seed end or intact seeds treated with gibberellic acid (GA), the seeds germinated at ∼20% after 30 days. The highest germination percentages after 30 days were 63% to 83% in fresh, agar-sown seeds that were cut and treated with GA at 5000 mg⋅L–1 regardless of stratification time. Similar results were seen in seeds allowed to dry before sowing. Seeds cut and treated with GA at 5000 mg⋅L–1 germinated at 79% after 30 days. However, dry seeds sown on germination paper showed lower germination after cutting and GA treatment compared with agar-sown seeds. The highest germination percentages after 30 days in dry, cut seeds on germination paper treated with GA at 2000 and 5000 mg⋅L–1 were 33% and 55%, respectively, compared with agar-sown seeds, which germinated at 76% and 79%, with the same treatments. Results from this study provide a system that reduces the need for chilling stratification for grape seed germination by using partial seedcoat removal and GA treatment.