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- Author or Editor: Ann Moore x
A crumbly fruited clone of `Centennial' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) had fewer drupelets per fruit and smaller fruit than normal-fruited `Centennial'. Although there was more abortive pollen in the crumbly clone of `Centennial', there was no difference in drupelet set between the two `Centennial' clones when used as paternal parents. Thus, in `Centennial', the mechanism causing crumbly fruit was primarily a maternal effect. There was no evidence of disease as a cause of the crumbly fruited `Centennial' clone and observations were consistent with a somatic mutation.
During storage for 16 days at 0 or 4.5C or storage for 8 days at 20C, fresh raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. var. idaeus) fruit became darker, less red, and more blue as recorded in L* a* b* CIE coordinates. Cultivars maintained their relative at-harvest ratings throughout storage. Rates of change for cultivars during storage did not differ. Color changes depended on temperature, with rates of change fastest at 20C, especially during the first 4 days. Fruit stored 16 days at OC was more red and less blue than that stored at 4.5C. Maximum color change was reached after 8 days at 0 or 4.5C and after 4 days at 20C.
The field performance of micropropagated and runner-propagated subclones of `Olympus' strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was compared. The yield of micropropagated plants was not greater than that of runner-propagated plants. There was significant variability among micropropagated subclones, with the highest yielding subclone having 68% higher yield than the lowest yielding subclone in each of the first 2 years. However, after runner propagation for 4 years, selected subclones showed no differences in yield. Differences among subclones of `Olympus' were not stable and were most likely transient responses to the micropropagation environment. The apparent superiority of the subclones was not genetic.
The use of plastic biodegradable mulch (BDM) in many vegetable crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has been proven to be of equal benefit as polyethylene (PE) mulch. However, there are limited research findings on the performance of BDM with a large fruited crop such as pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) where the fruit can rest directly on the mulch for an extended period. To investigate whether heavy fruit might cause the mulch to degrade more quickly than expected, thereby, influencing weed control, fruit yield, and fruit quality including mulch adhesion on fruit, we carried out a field experiment in 2015 and 2016 at two locations in the United States with distinctive climates, Mount Vernon, WA and Knoxville, TN. Three plastic mulches marketed as biodegradable (BioAgri, Organix, and Naturecycle), one fully biodegradable paper mulch (WeedGuardPlus), and one experimental plastic BDM consisting of polylactic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates (Exp. PLA/PHA) were evaluated against PE mulch and bare ground where ‘Cinnamon Girl’ pie pumpkin was the test crop. There was significant weed pressure in the bare ground plots at both locations over both years, indicating viable weed seed banks at the field sites. Even so, weed pressure was minimal across mulch treatments at both locations over both years because the mulches remained sufficiently intact during the growing season. The exceptions were Naturecycle in 2015 at both locations because of the splitting of the mulch and consequently higher percent soil exposure (PSE), and the penetration of all the plastic mulches at Knoxville by nutsedge (Cyperus sp. L.); nutsedge did not penetrate WeedGuardPlus. At Mount Vernon, overall pumpkin yield across both years averaged 18.1 t·ha−1, and pumpkin yield was the greatest with PE, Exp. PLA/PHA, BioAgri, and Naturecycle (19.9–22.8 t·ha−1), intermediate with Organix and WeedGuardPlus (15.3–18.4 t·ha−1), and the lowest for bare ground (8.7 t·ha−1). At Knoxville, overall pumpkin yield across both years averaged 17.7 t·ha−1, and pumpkin yield did not differ because of treatment (15.3–20.4 t·ha−1). The differences in yield between treatments at Mount Vernon were likely because of differences in the soil temperature. At 10 cm depth, the average soil temperature was 1 °C lower for bare ground and WeedGuardPlus as compared with PE mulch and plastic BDMs (20.8 °C). In contrast, soil temperatures were generally higher (25.2 to 28.3 °C) for all treatments at Knoxville and more favorable to crop yield compared with Mount Vernon. Forty-two percent to 59% of pumpkin fruit had mulch adhesion at harvest at Mount Vernon, whereas only 3% to 12% of fruit had mulch adhesion at Knoxville. This difference was because of the location of fruit set—at Mount Vernon, most of the fruit set was on the mulch whereas at Knoxville, vine growth was more extensive and fruit set was mostly in row alleys. Fruit quality differences among treatments were minimal during storage across both locations and years except for total soluble solids (TSS) in 2016, which was lower for bare ground and WeedGuardPlus compared with all the plastic mulches. Taken overall, these results indicate that pie pumpkin grown with BDM has fruit yield and quality comparable to PE mulch; however, adhesion of some BDMs on fruit could affect marketable yield. Furthermore, paper mulch appears to prevent nutsedge penetration.
Plant spacing and production systems are important factors for maximizing production of greenhouse-grown tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Two studies were conducted simultaneously and independently, each in a 33 × 96-ft greenhouse in Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 using perlite soilless bag culture. The purpose of the first study was to evaluate yield and fruit weight of ‘Trust’ tomatoes spaced 12, 16, 20, 24, or 28 inches in-row. The second study was conducted to determine the effect of pruning production systems on yield and fruit weight. The first system is pruning two plants per bag each to a single leader and the second is pruning one plant per bag to double leader. A plant spacing of 28 inches resulted in significantly more fruit per plant than the 12-inch plant spacing. However, yield per area decreased with wider plant spacings. Plants spaced 12 inches apart in-row produced 2.8 and 3.8 lb/ft2 total yield in the fall and spring, respectively, compared with plants spaced 28 inches apart that produced 1.7 and 2.2 lb/ft2 in the fall and spring. Using a production system with one plant per bag pruned to a double leader increased yield by 6.4 lb/plant in the fall and 15.7 lb/plant in the spring. On a per bag basis, pruning two tomato plants to one leader increased total yield by 2.6 lb/bag and was more economical in the fall; whereas, in the spring, the double leader production system did not affect yield but was more economical.
Papaya seedlings segregate for sex expression as females or hermaphrodites. Typically only hermaphrodite fruit are marketed in Hawaii. The agronomic practice of growing multiple seedlings that are later thinned to a single hermaphrodite tree is wasteful of seed, labor, and resources, especially when seed is costly. We compared growth of plants propagated by the clonal methods of micropropagation or rooting vegetative cuttings versus plants initiated as seedlings and transplanted. The seedlings were either single-planted hermaphrodites as identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiple-planted, thinned seedlings. The experiments were carried out in three different locations on two islands in Hawaii. Clonally propagated plants were significantly shorter than seedlings and bore flowers earlier and lower on the trunk at all locations. Stem diameter differences were not significant even though plant size was different at planting time. Percentage of trees in bud varied significantly in the third month after transplanting when about 90% of the rooted cuttings and large micropropagated plants had formed flower buds while only one multiple-planted seedling developed a bud. Overall, the clonally propagated plants were more vigorous and earlier bearing than were the seedling plants. There is good potential for adoption of clonal propagation when production becomes efficient enough to compete in price with the current practice of over planting and thinning.
Gynodioecious papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings in commercial cropping systems in Hawaii are typically multiple-planted and thinned upon flowering to a single hermaphrodite because seedlings segregate for sex expression. Use of clonally propagated hermaphrodites would eliminate the over-planting practice and may provide other advantages. Yields of clonally propagated hermaphrodites were compared with single- and multiple-planted seedlings in three fields on two islands in Hawaii. Cloned hermaphrodites were either rooted cuttings or in vitro micropropagated plants. Clonally propagated plants bore ripe fruit 1 to 3 months earlier than thinned seedlings and had significantly higher early and cumulative yields. At each site, cumulative yields of thinned seedlings never reached the same level as those of clonally propagated plants. The yield benefit from clonally propagated plants was greatest at Keaau, the lowest sunlight and least productive test site.