Previous research has shown the effectiveness of prodiamine (FactorÆ)as a preemergent herbicide. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy and phytotoxicity of prodiamine applied to several woody ornamental and weed species. Phytotoxicity effects were evaluated on eight ornamental species: azalea (Rhododendron indicum `Mrs. G.G. Gerbing'), dwarf yaupon (Ilex vomitoria `Nana'), dwarf mondograss (Ophiopogon japonicus `Nana'), ixora (Ixora coccinea), lantana (Lantana camara `New Gold'), Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina), and daylily (Hemerocallis fulva). Preemergent herbicide treatments (control-nontreated, 2 lbs aia Factor®, and 4 lbs aia Factor®) were applied to ornamentals twice during the experiment at twelve week intervals. There was a reduction in top dry weight for azalea and dwarf mondograss for both 2 and 4 lbs aia treatments. No significant growth reductions were measured for daylily, dwarf yaupon, ixora, lantana, live oak, and weeping fig. The efficacy experiment consisted of four weed species: barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgali), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata), and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and five preemergence herbicide treatments (control-nontreated, control-Rout® at 100 lbs/A, Factor® 1 lb aia, Factor® 2 lbs aia, and a tank mixture of Factor® 1 lb aia plus Gallery® 1 lb aia) applied to bark-filled containers. Twenty-five weed seeds of each species were broadcast over each container following herbicide applications. The high rate of Factor®, Rout®, and the combination of Factor®+Gallery® significantly reduced weed dry weight compared to the control. All preemergence herbicides significantly reduced weed counts and height in a similar manner.
Edward Bush, Ann L. Gray, Virginia Thaxton, and Allen Owings
Edward W. Bush, Ann L. Gray, Paul W. Wilson, and Robert I. Edling
Irrigation management is essential in producing quality woody ornamentals and minimizing off-site runoff. The closed-capture effluent device provided an inexpensive method of monitoring effluent in large containers throughout the year with minimal effort. Daily irrigation requirements for `Little Gem' southern magnolia (Magnolia grandifolia) were established throughout an entire growing season. The maximum daily water requirement was approximately 3 gal (11.4 L).
Edward W. Bush, Don R. LaBonte, Ann L. Gray, and Arthur Q. Villordon
Production of disease-free sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] transplants is of major importance to certified and foundation seed programs and producers. Sweetpotato roots are traditionally planted and cuttings are harvested from propagation beds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of producing cuttings in nursery containers. Virus-tested and virus-infected `Beauregard' sweetpotato transplants were harvested from planting beds for the purpose of producing cuttings for transplants. Cuttings were established in 3.7-L plastic nursery containers filled with 100% pine bark amended with either low, medium, or high rates of Osmocote 14-14-14 and dolomitic lime. Resulting transplants produced a greater number of cuttings and greater plant biomass with higher fertilizer rates. Increasing fertilizer rates also had a positive effect on cutting production and biomass. Dry weight and stem growth were similar for both virus-infected and virus-tested transplants following first and second harvests. Producing foundation cuttings in nursery containers filled with a pine bark medium proved to be an efficient method of increasing virus-tested sweetpotato cuttings.
Edward W. Bush, Ann L. Gray, Paul W. Wilson, and Allen D. Owings
A closed capture irrigation apparatus was designed and constructed for the purpose of monitoring irrigation effluent volume and nutrient analysis from 121-L redwood tree boxes. Measurements were taken monthly from Apr. 1997 to Oct. 1998. Tree boxes were filled with either a 3 pine bark: 1 sand: 1 peat or 3 pine bark: 1 soil media and planted with `Little Gem' magnolia [Magnolia grandiflora (L.) `Little Gem'] or Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana var. virginiana Mill.). In-line, pressure-compensated drip emitters provided irrigation water at the rate of 2 L/h. Daily irrigation volume ranged from 8 L in the fall and spring to 16 L during the summer months. The collection apparatus was constructed from 1-cm angle iron, neoprene rubber, a small drain assembly, and a 22-L plastic container. A square metal frame (43 × 43 cm) was supported by 31-cm legs and draped by a neoprene rubber mat with a drain assembly installed in the center. The drain was positioned into the plastic container creating a closed system to reduce effluent evaporation. The container capacity was adequate to store at least 24 h of collected effluent. This apparatus proved to be an efficient method of collecting irrigation effluent from large containers.