Soluble solids (Brixo), carbohydrate, organic acid, lycopene, polyphenols and HMF content of indeterminate round type tomato Lemance F1 fruits were measured in six ripeness stages from mature green to deep red stage. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were received directly and used to calculate from which the a*/b* ratio was calculated. The Brixo, carbohydrate, lycopene and HMF content were the highest in the deep red stage. Carbohydrate contents constitute nearly 50% of the Brixo. The mature green stage had the lowest acid content but in subsequent stages it was fundamentally unchanged. Polyphenol content changed little during fruit ripening. Lycopene content changed significantly during maturation and accumulated mainly in the deep red stage. Analyses showed that a*/b* was closely correlated with lycopene and can be used to characterize stages of maturity in fresh tomatoes.
Lajos Helyes, Zoltán Pék and Andrea Lugasi
Zoltán Pék, Lajos Helyes and Andrea Lugasi
Tomato fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process that culminates in dramatic changes in texture, color, flavor, and aroma of the fruit flesh. The characteristic pigmentation of red ripe tomato fruit is the result of the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, mainly lycopene and β-carotene, which are associated with the change in fruit color from green to red as chloroplasts are transformed to chromoplasts. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ripening conditions on color development and antioxidant content. Detached tomato fruit stored at 15 and 30 °C and vine-ripened fruits were studied to characterize the ripening process by Hue (°) index (CIELab color system), which is strongly influenced by the circumstances of ripening. Total polyphenols, ascorbic acid, and lycopene content of tomato fruits were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Changes in the color of fruit stored at 15 °C and vine-ripened fruit showed significantly higher a* compared with fruit stored at 30 °C. Storage temperature influenced positively ascorbic acid and negatively lycopene content, whereas total polyphenols did not show differences among the different ripening conditions.
Lajos Helyes, Zoltán Pék, Sára Brandt and Andrea Lugasi
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit is an important source of antioxidants, which are important in the prevention of many cancer types and cardiovascular diseases. In ripe tomato fruit, one of the most significant antioxidant compounds is lycopene. In this study, effects of the cultivars and the environmental conditions on the lycopene content were investigated. Temperature effect was characterized by calculating growing degree-day (GDD). Relationships among lycopene, total polyphenols, organic acid, and total antioxidant status (TAS) were analyzed. A variation of more than 30% was found among the lycopene levels of five processing tomato cultivars. Lycopene content ranged from 79.7 to 155.0 mg·kg–1 fresh weight. There was a significant difference between the lycopene concentrations of fruit harvested at two different dates. The values were higher at the second harvest, probably due to the cooler weather conditions preceding that harvest. Total polyphenols correlated strongly with TAS but the other antioxidants did not have any relationship to TAS. GDD were strongly and positively correlated with hydroxymethylfurfural content in fresh tomatoes.
Zoltán Pék, Péter Szuvandzsiev, András Nemenyi, Lajos Helyes and Andrea Lugasi
During the vine ripening of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the change in antioxidant content and color was studied under two different solar exposures. An experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 to determine how color evolution, surface temperature, and antioxidant content of tomato fruits were influenced by fruit position and exposure on trellised tomato plants. Trellised rows were oriented so that non-shaded fruits were subjected to full solar irradiation from 0900 hr to 1600 hr, whereas shaded fruits were completely shaded during the same time period. A significant difference (P = 0.001) between fruit surface temperatures of shaded or non-shaded fruits was observed. The more direct solar irradiation the fruits were exposed to, the higher the fruit surface temperatures increased. At 1400 hr, only the average temperature of non-shaded fruits was significantly higher (7.0 and 9.3 °C in 2008 and 2009, respectively) than the air temperature. At the end of the ripening process, color change of non-shaded fruits showed significantly higher CIELab hue compared with shaded fruits. A close negative correlation (R 2 = 0.51) was detected between the hue color parameters and the cumulative fruit surface–air temperature difference of non-shaded fruits, but in the case of shaded fruits, there was only a weak (R 2 = 0.29) correlation. Solar exposure had a great effect on the antioxidant content of tomato fruits. A higher fruit surface temperature resulted in significantly less lycopene and more polyphenols and ascorbic acid content in tomato fruits.
Attila Ombódi, Noémi Koczka, Andrea Lugasi, Hussein Gehad Daood, Mária Berki and Lajos Helyes
A 3-year experiment was conducted in central Hungary comparing the effect of an irrigation treatment on content and yield of dry matter, storage carbohydrates, vitamin C, total flavonols, and total polyphenols of onion (Allium cepa L.) grown from sets. Rain-fed plots were set as controls. Conditions during the first 40 days of the growing season had a decisive effect on yield and bulb size; warmer and dryer weather during this period resulted in lower yield. Colder and wetter weather conditions resulted in higher bulb yield, but also decreased accumulation of secondary metabolites. Dry matter content values ranged between 12% and 14% and were not influenced by the water supply. Storage carbohydrate-to-dry matter ratio was not changed by the water supply. Total flavonol contents (sum of the concentrations of nine individual flavonols) varied between 430 and 753 mg·kg−1 on a fresh weight basis. Total polyphenol values ranged between 607 and 1029 mg·kg−1 on a fresh weight basis. A statistically significant correlation was found between flavonol content and polyphenol content for the rain-fed treatment, but this was not the case for the irrigation treatment. Irrigation significantly increased total flavonol and total polyphenol concentrations during the dry years. Irrigation significantly increased the bulb yield by 33% to 160%, depending on the year. Consequently, by applying irrigation, yields of nutritive compounds became 1.5 to two times higher.