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Zoltán Pék, Péter Szuvandzsiev, András Nemenyi, Lajos Helyes and Andrea Lugasi

During the vine ripening of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the change in antioxidant content and color was studied under two different solar exposures. An experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 to determine how color evolution, surface temperature, and antioxidant content of tomato fruits were influenced by fruit position and exposure on trellised tomato plants. Trellised rows were oriented so that non-shaded fruits were subjected to full solar irradiation from 0900 hr to 1600 hr, whereas shaded fruits were completely shaded during the same time period. A significant difference (P = 0.001) between fruit surface temperatures of shaded or non-shaded fruits was observed. The more direct solar irradiation the fruits were exposed to, the higher the fruit surface temperatures increased. At 1400 hr, only the average temperature of non-shaded fruits was significantly higher (7.0 and 9.3 °C in 2008 and 2009, respectively) than the air temperature. At the end of the ripening process, color change of non-shaded fruits showed significantly higher CIELab hue compared with shaded fruits. A close negative correlation (R 2 = 0.51) was detected between the hue color parameters and the cumulative fruit surface–air temperature difference of non-shaded fruits, but in the case of shaded fruits, there was only a weak (R 2 = 0.29) correlation. Solar exposure had a great effect on the antioxidant content of tomato fruits. A higher fruit surface temperature resulted in significantly less lycopene and more polyphenols and ascorbic acid content in tomato fruits.

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Zoltán Pék, Hussein Daood, Magdolna Gasztonyi Nagyné, Mária Berki, Marianna Márkus Tóthné, András Neményi and Lajos Helyes

Two experiments were carried out in 2010 to determine how cultivation period/harvest season, plant water status/irrigated, or rainfed and foliar sulfur supplementation influences the yield, sulforaphane, phenolics content, and polyphenol composition of broccoli cultivar Parthenon. Yield was significantly higher in the fall harvests. Foliar sulfur treatment induced earliness in irrigated broccoli in the fall harvest season of main florets by 44%. Sulforaphane content was higher in the fall harvests regardless of treatments. Harvest season also influenced total polyphenol content with the highest values measured in the spring season. Sulfur treatment in combination with irrigation increased total polyphenol content by 24% in spring and this change was statistically significant. Harvest season also affected trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values with the highest values (4.3 mmol·kg−1) also measured in spring. In the irrigated treatment alone or irrigated treatment combined with sulfur treatment, spring season values were higher by 24% and 11%, respectively, compared with fall values and the difference between treatments was significant. Caffeic acid glucoside was one of the major phenolic components in both spring and fall season harvests, whereas ferulic acid glucoside could only be detected in spring florets. From the measured phenolic components, gallic acid content was the only one that was significantly raised by foliar sulfur supplementation in both spring and fall harvests in irrigated or rainfed treatments. Maximum gallic acid values (7.1 to 7.2 mg·kg−1) occurred in the irrigated combined with foliar sulfur treatment of the fall harvest in side and main florets, respectively. The season, irrigation, and foliar sulfur supplementation were related changes in other phenolic component contents and are also described in detail.

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Tuan Anh Le, Zoltán Pék, Sándor Takács, András Neményi, Hussein G. Daood and Lajos Helyes

Open field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) biofertilizer on processing tomato, grown under three different irrigation regimes. The field effectiveness of rhizobacteria inoculation on total biomass, yield, water use efficiency (WUE), carotenoid, and ascorbic acid production was examined in 2015 and 2016. The experimental design used was randomized block and the number of replications was four for each treatment. There were three different irrigation regimes: rain-fed control (RF), deficit water supply (WS50), and optimum water supply (WS100), which was delivered by drip irrigation in accordance with daily evapotranspiration (ETc). The test was performed on the Uno Rosso F1 processing tomato hybrid. Red fruit were measured at harvest in August and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for analysis. We evaluated yield quantity and total carotenoids and their composition (lycopene and β-carotene) depending on water supplement in 2 years. The marketable yield varied between 14.7 t·ha−1 and 126.9 t·ha−1 depending on treatment. The average soluble solids content (SSC) of the treatments ranged from 3.0 to 8.4. The total carotenoid yields of the treatments ranged from 0.8 to 40.4 kg·ha−1 and the average lycopene yield of the treatments ranged from 0.6 to 34.1 kg·ha−1. The effect of PGPR treatment was clearly positive for harvested yield, but this effect only prevailed under irrigated conditions.