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- Author or Editor: Alley E. Watada x
Chilling injury affects a wide range of horticultural crops when they are subjected to low-temperature stress and it also increases marketing losses and the cost of produce. The phenomenon was thought to be restricted to crops of tropical origin because, initially, the injuries were noted only with these crops when grown in the temperate zone. However, crops of temperate origin also have been found to develop physiological disorders when subjected to low-temperature stress. Questions now remain as to the etiology and the basic mechanism that underlie the injuries noticed on crops of tropical and of temperate origins.
Ascorbic acid of fresh fruits and vegetables was extracted with 6% metaphosphoric acid and determined effectively by using a C18 cartridge in a radial compression module and 1.5% NH4H2PO4 mobile phase in a high performance liquid chromatograph.
What is quality? Definitions of quality differ, especially among scientists, who define quality in reference to their field of interest. For example, plant breeders would define quality in reference to physical characteristics, yield, and disease resistance of plants. Human nutritionists would define quality in reference to chemical components of food, such as vitamins, mineral elements, carbohydrates, and proteins. Consumers would refer to sensory attributes in defining quality. However, quality cannot be defined adequately by referring only to these specific attributes. As stated by Kramer and Twigg (1), quality is the composite of those characteristics that differentiate individual items of a product and have significance in determining the degree of acceptability of the item to the buyer. Thus, those of us seeking to improve postharvest technology must refer to all of the above factors — chemical composition and physical, sensory and other attributes of horticultural crops — in defining quality.
Sodium dehydroacetate (NaDHA) was most effective in extending the shelf life of fruits of strawberry cultivars that have the poorest holding capacity. Decreased respiration of treated fruits is attributed to the fungicidal property of NaDHA or inhibitory effect of the chemical on a respiratory enzyme of the fruit. A 0.5% NaDHA solution retarded ripening.
A study was undertaken to determine the inhibitory effect of freeze-dried spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) powder and its native mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) on the growth of six strains, representing three species, of Listeria in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The cultures were incubated at 10 °C and growth was measured daily. Both spinach powder and MAM inhibited growth; maximum populations at 6 days were 8.8 Log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL-1 in control, 6.4 in spinach powder cultures, and 7.4 in MAM cultures. These results indicated that growth of various Listeria species/strains was affected by the bacteriostatic effect of spinach powder and competitive effect of native microorganisms.
Physiology and quality of CaCl2 treated or nontreated `Elite' zucchini squash slices were monitored during storage in air, low O2 (0.25, 0.5 and 1%) or high CO2 (3, 6, and 10%) atmosphere at 10C. O2 consumption and CO2 production were reduced under low O2 and high CO2 atmospheres and the reduction was greater with low O2. C2H4 production was reduced with low O2 and initially with high CO2. After day 2 or 4, C2H4 production under high CO2 increased with the increase being greater at the lower CO2 level. The amount and severity of injury/decay were less under low O2 and high CO2 than air atmosphere. Slices stored under 0.25% O2 atmosphere had less weight loss and injury/decay and greater shear force and ascorbic acid content than those held in air atmosphere. Microbial count, pH, and color were affected by the low O2 only on the last day. CaCl2 had no additive effect.
Fresh-cut spinach has been shown to have a bacteriostatic effect on Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 (Babic et al., 1997). A study was undertaken to determine if this effect is noted on other species of Listeria and to determine if the spinach or the natural microorganisms on the spinach was the cause of the bacteriostatic effect. Six species of Listeria was cultivated in pure tryptic soy broth, tryptic soy broth containing freeze-dried spinach powder, or broth containing mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM) isolated from spinach powder. The cultures were incubated at 10°C for 6 days and growth measured daily. Growth data were analyzed as four factor general linear repeated measures mixed model with species, treatment, and day as the fixed effects. The fixed effects showed a significant interaction between treatment × day and day × species. Results indicated that both the spinach and MAM had an inhibitory effect on Listeria as noted by the maximum population at 6 days, which was 8.8 Log10 cfu/ml in control, 6.4 in spinach powder cultures, and 7.4 in mixed cultures (P < 0.05). Of the six Listeria species, three L. monocytogenes were affected similarly whereas the remaining three, particularly L. innocua, were affected differently. In conclusion, the bacteriostatic effect of fresh-cut spinach differs with Listeria species and the native microorganisms play a major role as competitors.
Studies. were undertaken to investigate the cause of the bacteriostatic activity of spinach leaves against Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was inoculated at the concentration 104 cells/ml in raw, autoclaved and vacuum filtration sterilized spinach macerates as well as in tryptic soy broth used as control. The concentrations after 24 h at 28C were 105, 5 × l06 and 105 cells/ml in respective spinach macerates and 4 × l08 cells/ml in tryptic soy broth. The anti-Listeria activity was still present in spinach macerates sterilized by vacuum filtration but strongly reduced in autoclaved macerates. Serial dilutions of freeze-dried spinach were tested on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth. The minimum concentration for maximum inhibition was 10 mg·ml–1. The growth of Listeria monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth in mixed cultures with different microbial species isolated from spinach was not inhibited. In conclusion, the bacteriostatic activity against Listeria monocytogenes might be due to antimicrobial compounds present in spinach leaves.
Chlorophylls and xanthophylls were monitored in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plen.) florets stored in air, air + 10 ppm ethylene, or 10% CO2 + 1% O2 controlled atmosphere (CA) at 15 °C. Chlorophylls a and b, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, decreased in florets held in air. The decrease was accelerated by ethylene treatment and suppressed in CA. Chlorophyllide a and pheophorbide a were present in fresh broccoli florets, but the levels decreased significantly in all treatments during storage. The oxidized product of chlorophyll a, 132-hydroxychlorophyll a, did not accumulate. Xanthophylls decreased, but new pigments, suggested to be esterified xanthophylls, formed with yellowing in stored florets. The chlorophyll degradative pathway in broccoli florets was not altered by ethylene or CA and differed from that reported for parsley (Petroselium crisum Nym.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves.
Pigments in stored parsley leaves (Petroselinum crispum Nym.) were monitored to determine if degradative products of chlorophyll (chl) differed while under different types of atmosphere. The leaves were stored in a closed container under a stream of humidified air at 20C with or without 10 ppm ethylene and with or without 10 percent oxygen and 10 percent carbon dioxide. Analysis of pigments with HPLC showed that chl a and b decreased sharply with or without ethylene and the decrease was considerably less under CA. Chlorophyll a-1, the oxidized form of chl a, was initially low, and the level decreased slightly with all of the storage conditions. Chlorophyllide was also low, but it increased slightly during storage. Xanthophyll derivatives, which appeared to be the esterified xanthophylls, increased slightly during storage. These results indicate that chl degradation in stored parsley leaves was hastened by ethylene or suppressed by CA condition and the pathway of chl degradation did not appear to be altered by the different storage atmospheres.