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  • Author or Editor: Ali M. Harivandi x
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The effects of high concentrations of Cl-, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ of the simulated waste water on the growth of turfgrass species and partitioning of these mineral element concentrations in the turfgrass-soil system have been studied. This is a two year project and the waste treatment was started in the first week of October 1993. The waste water contains 17.89 mM of K+, 97.5 mM of Ca2+, 78.1 mM of Mg2+, and 389.17 mM of Cl-. Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass have been irrigated with 1/5, 1/10, and 1/20 times concentration of the waste water and mowed weekly at 5 cm high. The preliminary results showed that there was no detectable growth inhibition of turfgrass by the three waste water concentrations. Waste water irrigation significantly increased the uptake of the mineral elements by the turfgrass. Significant reduction of the mineral element concentrations in the leach by the turfgrass system only found under the conditions of low concentration waste irrigation. However, the seasonal growth pattern of the turfgrass species may have significant influence on the partitioning of the element concentrations in the turfgrass-soil system and their concentrations in the leach. This prediction will be detected by the future studies.

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Abstract

Media used in golf green construction are typically at least 75% sand by volume. This field study was conducted over 8 years on a sand medium to determine creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) quality response to P and K. Phosphorus (0, 5, and 11 kgha-1) and K (0, 4, and 8 kg-ha-1) treatments were arranged factorially and applied monthly to creeping bentgrass receiving uniform N (49 kg/ha per month). A significant (quadratic) response of creeping bentgrass quality to increasing P level was observed each year. Creeping bentgrass fertilized at 5 or 11 kg P/ha per month was similar in quality. Potassium had no effect on visual quality of creeping bentgrass. This study demonstrated the importance of P in maintaining creeping bentgrass quality on a sand-based medium.

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Stand establishment of direct-seeded hard fescue (Festuca longifolia) is slow. Sodding could speed establishment in landscape plantings. This study looked at the effects of two sod thicknesses and different rates of nitrogen fertilization before and after sodding, on stand establishment and overall turf quality. Evaluations 2, 4 and 8 weeks after sodding assessed rooting and overall turf quality. Thicker sod showed better rooting 4 weeks after planting; after 8 weeks, rooting of both thicknesses was similar. Nitrogen fertilization before or after sodding did not affect rooting. More nitrogen led to better overall turf quality up to 4 weeks after planting; however, this quality difference disappeared 8 weeks after sodding.

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The effects of regenerant wastewater irrigation and high concentrations of Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Cl on growth and ion uptake of nine species of landscape plants were studied. Significant differences in chloride tolerance were detected among the species. Generally, the species that had greater uptake of chloride grew less than species that took up less amounts of chloride. Lace fern (Athyrium filix-femina Roth.) had the highest tissue Cl concentration and was the most affected. Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Ser.) also had high tissue Cl concentration, but showed no growth reduction. Its tolerance was attributable to a high tissue Ca concentration. The data suggest that in the species tested, higher tissue Ca concentrations were positively correlated with plant tolerance to Cl. Overall, the Cl concentration in the wastewater seems to be the factor most likely to create problems for the landscape plants. However, severe negative effects will probably be noticed only for very sensitive plant species, but it is important to determine this before applying regenerant irrigation water.

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