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Alexander D. Pavlista

Chemical vine desiccation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is widely used in the USA. Diquat is the major vine desiccant but has some drawbacks such as incomplete stem desiccation allowing regrowth. A new herbicide, UCC-C4243, was evaluated as a replacement for diquat. The potato cultivar `Atlantic' was treated with UCC-C4243 (a.i.) at 0.25 to 2.5 oz/acre (17.5 to 175 g·ha-1), and leaf and stem desiccation efficiency was compared to diquat (a.i.) at 4 oz/acre (280 g·ha-1). Split applications of UCC-C4243 were compared to double applications of diquat. Subjective evaluations were made on regrowth and tuber skinning, and objective measurements on specific gravity and yield. Trials were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Scottsbluff, NE. UCC-C4243 at 1.5 oz/acre (105 g·ha-1) and higher significantly increased leaf and stem desiccation compared to diquat. There was no difference between single and split applications of UCC-C4243. UCC-C4243 suppressed regrowth at 1 oz/acre (70 g·ha-1) and prevented it at 2.5 oz/acre at 3 weeks after treatment while diquat did not. Skin set of tubers was promoted equally by all desiccants. Specific gravity was not lowered by UCC-C4243 but was by diquat. Yields were not affected by either UCC-C4243 at 1.5 oz/acre or diquat at 4 oz/acre. UCC-C4243 was more effective than diquat as a vine desiccant without the regrowth and tuber specific gravity effects associated with diquat.

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Alexander D. Pavlista

Nitroguanidines are a new family of synthetic plant growth regulators (Speltz, Walworth, and Pavlista 1986. US Patent #4, 594, 092) These compounds have cytokinin-like activity such as delaying senescence. Three compounds are AC239, 604, AC243, 419 and AC132, 654 The first two are phenyl and the latter is a benzyl nitroguanidine. Examples of anti-senescence activity of these compounds are: 1. sunflower leaves, 2. tobacco leaves, 3. leafy lettuce, 4. kale, 5. collards, and 6. Swiss chard. The senescence of cut ornamental flowers is also inhibited. Examples are gladiolus and daffodils. Along with delaying senescence, AC239, 604, for example, increased leaf size, thereby, increasing yield of leaf crops such as tobacco (Pavlista and Templeton. 1987. PGRSA Proc.) and lettuce.

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Servet Kefi, Paul E. Read, Alexander Pavlista and Stephen D. Kachman

To determine the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (kinetin) concentrations alone and in combinations on in vitro tuberization of potato, nine treatments consisting of combinations of gibberellic acid and kinetin at three levels of concentration (0, 2, and 5 mg·liter–1) were included in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6% sucrose. Four single nodes of in vitro plantlets from Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic were placed into each magenta box. All magenta boxes were arranged in a randomized complete box design with five replications and cultured under a short photoperiod condition (8 h light/16 h dark). Gibberellic acid strongly inhibited tuberization when used alone or with kinetin, whereas kinetin induced tuberization at both 2 and 5 mg·liter–1. Although tuberization was initiated in the absence of kinetin because of the high concentration of sucrose and short photoperiod, the presence of kinetin accelerated the in vitro tuberization process of potato.

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Servet Kefi, Paul E. Read, Alexander D. Pavlista and Stephen D. Kachman

The role of sucrose alone and in combination with different cytokinin-like compounds on the microtuberization of potato, Solanum tuberosum `Atlantic', was investigated. Single nodal segments were placed in Magenta boxes containing Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with one of 15 treatments in a 3 × 5 factorial. Treatment factors were sucrose at 3%, 6%, or 9%, and cytokinin-like compounds at five levels [cytokinin-free; 2 mg kinetin/L; 0.1 mg thidiazuron (TDZ)/L; 1.0 mg AC 243,654/L; 0.1 mg AC 239,604/L]. Except in a few cases in kinetin and TDZ treatments, nearly all cytokinin treatments failed to induce tuberization at the 3% sucrose, noninductive level. However, all cytokinin treatments induced tuberization in the presence of 6% sucrose. By raising the sucrose level from 6% to 9%, more and larger microtubers were obtained in the cytokinin-free medium. At the 9% sucrose level, even though more tubers per box were produced by TDZ and AC 243,654 treatments, less total fresh weight of tubers per box resulted from kinetin, TDZ and AC 243,654 treatments because tubers formed were smaller. Higher sucrose concentrations (9%) favored tuberization in the cytokinin-free medium, whereas 6% sucrose was optimum for the medium containing cytokinins. Sucrose might produce a strong tuberization signal that might either change endogenous hormone levels affecting tuberization or activate a number of genes coding tuber proteins and enzymes related to starch synthesis.

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Alexander D. Pavlista, Dipak K. Santra, James A. Schild and Gary W. Hergert

To lower seed yield loss from directly harvested common bean or dry bean, height of the lower pod-bearing nodes needs to be raised. The objective of this greenhouse study was to stimulate lower stem elongation by gibberellic acid (GA3) of dry bean cultivars. Seeds of cv. Matterhorn, erect indeterminate Type II, and cv. Poncho, prostate indeterminate Type III, were dipped in GA3 at 62.5 to 16,000 ppm and planted. After 14 d, the height of the unifoliate and first trifoliate nodes showed maximum stimulation of stem elongation by 1000 ppm GA3 for ‘Poncho’ and by 2000 ppm for ‘Matterhorn’. Application of 1 mL of GA3 at 0.031 to 2048 ppm to newly expanded unifoliate leaves showed cultivar differences. Whereas ‘Matterhorn’ was promoted at 64 ppm and reached a maximum height by 512 ppm GA3, ‘Poncho’ was promoted at 0.25 ppm and reached a maximum height by 8 ppm GA3. Flowering of ‘Matterhorn’ was unaffected by GA3; flowering of ‘Poncho’ was completely inhibited by 128 ppm. The sensitivity difference of cultivars was verified with other cultivars. Type I cultivars, which are all determinate, showed a full range of GA3 sensitivity. Dry bean cultivars may be regrouped based on the GA3 dose to which they respond. Individual response to GA3 rates of dry bean cultivars needs to be predetermined using a short-term, 2–3 weeks, greenhouse bioassay before field use of GA3.

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Alexander D. Pavlista, Gary Hergert, Dipak K. Santra and James A. Schild

The lowest pods on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are on or near the ground. Yields may improve by raising these pods to reduce yield loss, especially with direct harvest. The objective of this field study was to use gibberellic acid (GA3) to raise lower pods and increase yield. Seeds of cultivars Poncho (Type III, pinto) and Matterhorn (Type II, great northern) were dipped in GA3 at 0, 125, 500, and 2000 ppm and planted in 30-inch rows (2005). Stem elongation was promoted, but emergence and yield were decreased especially for ‘Poncho’. In foliar tests in 30-inch rows (2005 and 2006), GA3 was applied to newly expanded unifoliolate leaves. Doses were 0, 0.5, 2, and 8 ppm for ‘Poncho’ and 0, 31.25, 125, and 500 ppm for ‘Matterhorn’. The higher doses raised the low pod by 2 inches, and yields harvested conventionally were increased from 14% to 18%. In 2007, ‘Poncho’ and ‘Matterhorn’ unifoliolate leaves were treated with GA3 at 0, 2, and 4 ppm, and 0, 62.5, and 125 ppm, respectively, and then portions of each plot were harvested either manually, conventionally, or directly. Planting was in 22- and 30-inch row spacing. Lower pods were raised by ≈1 inch by GA3. Yields from conventional and direct harvest were increased by foliar GA3 application for both cultivars and both row spacings. Yield from directly harvested GA3-treated plots was comparable to that from untreated conventionally harvested plots. GA3 may play a role in increasing yield from directly harvested common bean in conjunction with genetic and mechanical improvements.