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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell

To evaluate importance of paclobutrazol residues on surfaces, begonia (Begonia semperflorens) cv. Whisky and chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) cv. Coral Davis plants were grown in flats sprayed with paclobutrazol at 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm.

For begonia, the plant heights at 2 and 4 weeks after treatments were decreased by 39 to 49% and by 55-69%, respectively. The overall change in height ranged from 2.1 to 4.9 cm compared to 15.3 cm for the control plants.

For chrysanthemum, a reduction in plant height was observed and the overall change in height ranged from 2.9 to 5.6 cm compared to 28.8 cm for the control plants.

Based on these results, there is a potential for paclobutrazol to affect non-target plants when subirrigation is used.

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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell

Paclobutrazol was applied as soil drench to potted petunia, and the treated plants were shorter than untreated ones. Three types of compost were then made from the treated and untreated plants: the shoots, the medium (including roots), and both shoots and medium. They were mixed with Vergro Klay Mix at the ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40% (v/v). In a factorial experiment, plugs of Begonia semperflorens cv. Gin were planted in the media with compost. Plants grown in media containing paclobutrazol residue were shorter and had less dry weight compared to those grown in media containing no paclobutrazol residue. Compost ratios at 5% and 40% reduced plant height to 65% and 42% and shoot dry weight to 55% and 20% of the control plants, respectively. These results indicate that residues from plants treated with paclobutrazol may carry over in soil of landscape beds and affect the growth of subsequent crops grown in that soil.

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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy and El-Sayed H. Hussien

In a randomized complete-block design, two separate experiments were conducted to study the response of lead tree Leucaena leucocephala and Hibiscus rosa sinensis to the application of the organic fertilizer, SoilRich. Seedlings of both species were grown in pots filled with growing media containing sandy soil and SoilRich. SoilRich was added at the rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% (v/v). The obtained results indicated that the application of SoilRich significantly increased plant height, stem elongation, branch number, shoots fresh and dry weights, and enhanced root growth of both Leucaena leucocephala and Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium percentages in the shoots were increased in both species as the applied rate of SoilRich was increased. SoilRich treatments increased the water holding capacity of the soil. Moreover, they increased organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium percentages in the soil. The application of SoilRich at 15% gave the best results.

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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, Nadia M. Abdalla, Mahmoud A. Hassan, and Ahmed F. Ali

Nigellia sativa L. plants were fertilized with different rates of NPK fertilizers in combination with the growth regulators, BL-2142, CCC and Multiprop sprayed at varied concentrations.

Fertilization and growth regulators increased the volatile and fixed oil content in the seeds. The photosynthetic pigments in the leaves, the reducing sugar and the total carbohydrate contents, N, P, and K uptake in the herb were also increased.

The interaction between fertilization and growth regulators had a synergistic effect on increasing the volatile and fixed oil percentage and yield, the photosynthetic pigments, N, P, K uptake. The highest volatile oil yield was found when the plants received 100, 200 and 50 kg/feddan (4,200 sqm) of urea, calcium superphosphate and potassium sulphate, respectively and sprayed with 500 ppm BL-2142, 1000 ppm CCC or 12.5 pm Multiprop. The volatile oil, fixed oil yield and seed yield were highly and significantly correlated with each other.

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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, Nadia M. Abdalla, and Ahmed A. El-Sayed

Calendula officinalis L. plants were fertilized with urea (46% N), ammonium nitrate (31% N), and ammonium sulfate (20% N) at 0, 25, 50, or 100 kg N/Feddan (4200 m2). The plants also received calcium superphosphate (15.5% P2O5) and potassium sulfate (48% K2O) at 100 and 50 kg/Feddan, respectively. The results showed that fertilizers enhanced vegetative growth and improved flowering aspects compared to control plants. Application of urea at 50 kg N/Feddan gave the highest flower number (119) and flower dry weight (183 g). Moreover, the applied fertilizers increased the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) in leaves and flowers and the N percentage in shoots. Nevertheless, P and K percentages were decreased.

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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, Nadia M. Abdalla, Mahmoud A. Hassan, and Ahmed F. Ali

Nigellia sativa L. plants were fertilized with different rates of NPK fertilizers and sprayed with the growth regulators BL-2142 at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm, CCC at 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm and Multiprop at 0. 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm.

The results indicated that both of NPK fertilization and growth regulator treatments enhanced the plant growth in terms of stem diameter, branch number and herb dry weight. Also, these treatments caused early flowering, increased fruit number and seed yield compared to the control plants.

The interaction between NPK fertilization and growth regulators had a synergistic effect. The highest seed yield was obtained when the plants received 200, 100, and 25 kg/feddan (feddan = 4200 sqm) of urea, calcium superphosphate and potassium sulphate, respectively and sprayed with CCC at 500 ppm.

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Nadia M. Abdalla, Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, Mohamed K. Ali, and Mervat A. Abd Al-Azeem

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta, L.) plants were fertilized with urea, nitrokima and ammonium nitrate at the rates of 0, 25, 50 and 100 kg N/feddan (feddan = 4200 sqm). These fertilizers were added at three batches during the growing season.

The application of nitrogen fertilizers enhanced plant growth in terms of plant height, stem diameter, branch number and the dry weights of leaves, flowers and herb. Also, these fertilizers increased the volatile oil content in the leaves and flowers. The most effective fertilizer was ammonium nitrate especially when the highest rate was applied as it gave 3.87 g/plant compared to 2.28 g/plant for the control plants.

The contents of photosynthetic pigments, reducing and total soluble sugars were increased compared to the control plants.

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Ahmed A. Al-Badawy, M. I. El-Amry, and M. A. Salem

Six woody plant species, (Atriplex lentiformis, Acacia ampliceps, Conocarpus erectus, Conocarpus erectus var. sericeus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Thespesia populnea) different in age, were grown in the field and irrigated with saline water (25 ppt). The physiological performance of these species was measured. Some macro- and micro-elements, carbohydrates, protein, proline, and photosynthetic pigments were estimated in the plants. The obtained results indicated in most cases, that age of plants has no effect on nutrients, protein, or carbohydrate concentrations. For each plant species, there were some differences in the chemical composition of the leaves and stems. No significant differences were detected in Mg and Mn concentrations in leaves and stems of all studied species. Photosynthetic pigments and proline concentrations were different depending on the plant species and age. The air and leaf temperature differentials, leaf conductance, and transpiration rate were also discussed. The overall growth and physiological performance of these plants was good.