Seeds of temperate fruit species need a long time to germinate as a result of their requirement of stratification or cold treatment. Therefore, fast and uniform germination techniques are desirable and important for fruit tree propagation and especially for breeding studies. The effects of combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and gibberellic acid (GA3) on in vitro embryo germination of apricot, peach, and wild cherry were determined without seed cold pretreatment. The results showed that no germination was recorded in all the seeds with testa. In the seeds without testa, no germination (wild cherry) or limited germination (less than 10%) was recorded. When the embryos separated from cotyledons were cultured, successful germination was obtained for all species. In general, the addition of different combinations of BAP and GA3 into the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium significantly increased the germination ratios of embryos without cotyledons in all species. For wild cherry, the best treatment (66.7% germination) was MS media containing 0.5 mg·L−1 BAP + 2.0 mg·L−1 GA3 or 0.5 mg·L−1 BAP + 4.0 mg·L−1 GA3. For peach, the best treatment (86.7% germination) was MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L−1 BAP + 3.0 mg·L−1 GA3. For apricot, the best treatment (93.3%) was MS media containing 0.5 mg·L−1 BAP + 3.0 mg·L−1 GA3, 1.0 mg·L−1 BAP + 1.0 mg·L−1 GA3, or 1.0 mg·L−1 BAP + 2.0 mg·L−1 GA3.
Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim and Fatma Yildirim
Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, Fatma Akinci-Yildirim, Mehmet Polat, Bekir Şan and Yılmaz Sesli
Amygdalin is a bioactive compound used in the traditional treatment of some diseases, and it is toxic to humans and animals when it is consumed excessively. It is abundantly found in the kernels of almond cultivars, especially in bitter ones. In the study, the amygdalin contents of the kernels of 15 commercial almond cultivars (Prunus amygdalus L.) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 2 consecutive years. The seeds of the cultivars were obtained from the Fruit Research Institute, Isparta, Turkey. Results indicated that amygdalin concentrations of the cultivars were significantly different (P < 0.05) for 2 years. The levels amygdalin ranged from 0.443 g·kg–1 to 1.866 g·kg–1 in 2008 and from 0.250 g·kg–1 to 2.200 g·kg–1 in 2009. As the average of 2 years, the highest concentration of amygdalin was determined in ‘Supernova’ (1.458 g·kg–1) and the lowest concentration was determined in ‘Masbovera’ (0.370 g·kg–1).