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Shao-chang Qin, Juan-ling Li, Abdul Kareem and Yong Wang

Partridge tea is one of the famous local herbal teas of Hainan Island, China. In the present study, headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were combined to determine and analyze the volatile components in the red and green leaves of partridge tea. Seventeen volatile components were identified in the red young leaves. The olefins, alkanes, and alcohols accounted for 71.24%, 1.1%, and 0.54%, among which the main components were caryophyllene (22.50%), humulene (18.73%), and α-guaiene (8.78%), respectively. Twenty volatile components were identified from red mature leaves, including 34.74% olefins, 6.14% esters, and 3.11% acids. Eighteen volatile components were identified from green young leaves, among which olefins (70.52%), alkanes (4.32%), and alcohol (0.89%) were the major components. Nineteen volatile components were identified from green mature leaves, among which the olefins, esters, and acids were the major components with the contents of 46.04%, 6.38%, and 1.37%, respectively. Results showed that the major volatile components of partridge tea were olefins, in which caryophyllene was the most abundant. The contents of volatile components between red leaves and green leaves had notable differences, which might be useful for germplasm identification of partridge tea.

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Mohammed I. Fetouh, Abdul Kareem, Gary W. Knox, Sandra B. Wilson and Zhanao Deng

A number of privet species (Ligustrum spp.) that are important to the nursery and landscape industry have escaped cultivation and become invasive or weedy in the United States and other countries. Induced tetraploids in these species may produce new selections or cultivars with reduced or eliminated invasive potential. Applying drops of semisolid agar containing 0.1% to 0.3% colchicine and 0.2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to newly emerged seedlings of japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) resulted in 15.6% to 22.6% tetraploid induction. The nuclear DNA content of tetraploids was 5.31 pg/2C, 101.9% higher than that of diploids. Compared with diploid plants, tetraploids were more compact, with an average of 31.0% shorter plant height and 33.1% smaller canopy width. Tetraploids had 29.2% thicker internodes, and their leaves were 39.5% larger and 33.8% thicker, resulting in 42.1% to 24.1% greater fresh or dry leaf weights (per leaf) in tetraploids compared with diploids. Without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatment, cuttings from tetraploids showed 28% lower rooting than diploids. IBA treatments improved the rooting of tetraploid cuttings, resulting in 65% rooting success. These results indicate that tetraploids can be readily induced in japanese privet and induced tetraploids show significant changes in plant growth and size, shoot growth, leaf morphology, and rooting of cuttings. The modified tetraploid induction method and the induced tetraploids are expected to be useful for producing new selections or cultivars with reduced invasive potential in japanese and other privets.