You are looking at 1 - 10 of 41 items for
- Author or Editor: A.M. Armitage x
Application of 1500 ppm chlormequat (CCC) prior to flower initiation accelerated flowering in hybrid geranium, but not when applied after flowers had initiated. The addition of 10 ppm GA3 to the chlormequat resulted in the same flowering time as control plants when applied prior to flower initiation. Fifty and 250 ppm GA3 retarded flowering time when applied prior to or after flower initiation. The data indicate that one of the reasons for early flowering due to CCC is that CCC may suppress endogenous GA levels. Exogenous GA3 increased flower diameter when applied only after flower initiation and increased plant height regardless of time of application. Increasing GA3 concentration generally resulted in a linear trend for time to flower, flower diameter, and nodes to peduncle regardless of time of application. Chemical name used: 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat).
New crops for pot plant and cut flower production are perhaps in greater demand in this country now than ever before. European research programs for new cultivars have generally been ahead of those here and a greater range of crops is commonly produced by European growers than in America. Research results from European countries are not often published in readily available journals and are difficult to translate, and production data often pertain only to the environment in which the plants were produced. (15).
Various field-grown specialty cut-flower species were subjected to full sun or 55% or 67% shade treatments for 2 to 3 years. Plants grown in shade had longer flower stems than those grown in ambient irradiance; however, yield (flower stems per plant) was species-dependent. Yield of Centaurea americana Nutt. `Jolly Joker', an annual speices, and Eryngium planum L., a perennial, declined linearly with each reduction in irradiance. However, yield of Echinops ritro L. `Taplow Blue', a perennial species, was higher in 55% shade than in ambient irradiance. Yield of transplants and tubers of Anemone coronaria L. `De Caen' were not affected by planting material (transplants or tubers). Plants grown under 67% shade had the longest stems starting 3 weeks after the beginning of harvest and the difference persisted for an additional 4 weeks regardless of planting material. A quadratic decline in yield in three of four cultivars of Zantedeschia Spreng. occurred as shade increased, but yield was similar for ambient and 55% shade. Scape length and spathe width increased as shade increased, although some cultivars were more responsive than others.
Fruit ripening of ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was accelerated by the application of ethephon 3 to 6 weeks after anthesis. Concentrations as low as 75 μ1·liter−1 were effective, but 600 μ1·liter−1 resulted in foliar and fruit damage. Concentrations of 150 and 300 μ1·liter−1 were most effective, regardless of cultivar. Fruit <3 cm long were less sensitive to ethephon than more mature fruit. Raising the pH of the treatment solution from 3.3 to 6.3 resulted in increased effectiveness of the chemical, mainly due to an increased response by the larger fruit. Production time was reduced ≈1 day for every 5% increase in colored fruit due to ethephon. Chemical names used: 2-(chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).
Achillea ‘Coronation Gold’, A. millefolium L. ‘Rose Beauty’, Physostegia virginiana L.' Liatris pycnostachya Michx., and Salvia leucantha Cav. were planted on 30-, 60-, 90-, or 120-cm centers. Data were collected for 2 or 3 years, depending on species. In all instances the number of flowering stems per plant increased but the number of stems per square meter decreased as spacing increased with time. Stem lengths of Achillea ‘Coronation Gold’, A. millefolium ‘Rose Beauty’, and Physostegia virginiana were affected signficantly by spacing but flower size and stem diameter remained unchanged regardless of planting distance.
Various species and selections of Achillea L. were grown for 2 to 5 years, depending on taxon, and evaluated for cut flower yield and quality. `Coronation Gold' yarrow (A. × `Coronation Gold') was productive for 5 years. Flower yield, average stem diameter, and stem length were smallest the first year, but no differences occurred between years 2 and 5. The highest percentage of stems > 50 cm long occurred on plants at the densest spacing. Yields were higher and stems longer for A. millefolium L. cultivars and A. ptarmica L. `The Pearl' in the second than the first year. A. millefolium `Kelwayi' and `Lilac Beauty' produced the highest yield while `Heidi' and `Sawa Sawa' produced the longest stems. Yields of all cultivars of Galaxy hybrids (A. taygetea Boiss. & Heldr. × A. millefolium) increased over 4 years of harvest. Stems were longer and flower diameters were larger after the 2nd year for all cultivars but `The Beacon'. `Salmon Beauty' had the highest yield, but yield of `Appleblossom' did not increase after year 2.
A copper hydroxide formulation (0%, 3.5%, 7%, 11% Cu) was applied to plug trays before sowing seeds of Impatiens ×hybrida L. `Accent Red', Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey `Scarlet Elite', and Petunia ×hybrida Hort.Vilm.-Andr. `Ultra White' to investigate the influence of the formulations on ease of transplant, root growth, and shoot growth. These factors also were investigated in Cu-treated seedling plugs held past optimal transplanting stage. Root spiraling and seedling height at transplant were reduced for all taxa grown in Cu-treated trays, regardless of concentration, compared to seedlings from nontreated trays. Root weight and shoot weight responses to Cu treatments at transplant and at flowering varied among taxa. Mature heights of all taxa were unaffected by Cu treatment; however, flowering date was delayed for impatiens and geraniums transplanted at optimal time from Cu-treated trays. In general, petunias displayed little response to Cu treatment. Root spiraling was reduced and plugs were removed more easily from Cu-treated than from control trays stored for 2 weeks in the greenhouse, but flowering time was delayed for 12 days for impatiens and petunias and 21 days for geraniums, regardless of Cu concentration.
Various bulbous species were planted during the fall and winter in an attempt to extend harvest periods of cut flowers. In the first year, late planting resulted in later flowering, but shorter stems and reduced yield than early planting; however, some responses were species specific. No differences in flowering due to initial planting times occurred in the subsequent 2 years, regardless of species tested. Anemone coronaria L. and Acidanthera murielae Hoog. ex Perry were productive for 1 year only, but Allium sphaerocephalum L., Brodiaea laxa Wats., and Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora (V.Lem. ex E. Morr.) N.E. Br. were productive for 2 to 3 years. The peak harvest for anemones was 3 to 5 weeks from beginning of harvest, depending on cultivar, and 10 to 20 days from beginning of harvest for crocosmia. Anemone `Mona Lisa' produced longer stems and larger flowers and flowered earlier than `De Caen'.
Bulbous roots of Kansas gayfeather or liatris (Liatris spicata Wind.), tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.), and Dutch iris (Iris × hollandica) were planted between Nov. 1986 and Mar. 1987. Late planting extended harvest times and resulted in highest yields and longest stem lengths for Liatris spicata and Polianthes tuberosa, but. results were cultivar-dependent with Iris × hollandica hybrids. Yield was highest for all cultivars of Dutch iris except `White Bell' when bulbs were planted in December. Late planting extended harvest time but reduced yield for all cultivars except `White Wedgwood'. No differences due to planting time occurred after the first season for liatris and tuberose, but both species had higher yields the years after initial planting and may be left undisturbed for at least 3 years. Iris flowers were destroyed by late frosts in two successive years and longevity could not be determined. The yield and stem length were optimum for Liatris 10 to 15 days from beginning of harvest, 4 to 5 weeks for single-flowered tuberose, and 5 to 6 weeks from start of harvest for double tuberose. Stem length of tuberose increased over the seasons, regardless of cultivar.
The effects of differing storage conditions prior to transplanting were examined for Salvia splendens `Red Hot Sally', Impatiens wallerana `Super Elfin White', Viola × wittrockiana `Universal Beaconsfield' and Petunia × hybrida `Supercascade Lilac'. Plug-grown seedlings were stored for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks at 5C or 10C and irradiance levels from incandescent bulbs at 0, 2 or 12 μmol s-1 m-2. A second group of plants were stored at 18C and irradiance from fluorescent bulbs at 105 μmol s-1 m-2 for the same time period. Temperature was more important than irradiance in maintaining plant quality over the storage period. Impatiens and salvia could be stored successfully for a minimum of 2 weeks at 5 or 10C with no appreciable loss of quality, petunia and pansy up to 3 weeks. Seedlings of all species showed diminished quality when stored longer than 1 week at 18C. After storage, petunias stored at 18C flowered sooner than those stored at 5 or 10C. However, these plants were single stemmed, with long internodes and few flowers while those plants stored at 5 or 10C developed multiple branching and a short, compact growth habit at flowering.