Breeding for resistance is an important strategy to manage common bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (E. Smith) Dye (Xep) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It is necessary to determine if prior inoculation of the first trifoliolate leaf with Xcp influences subsequent reactions in other plant organs by increasing or decreasing resistance to Xcp. It is difficult to get an accurate estimate of heritability of disease reaction in pods since environment greatly affects the heritability estimate if flowering occurs over extended time periods. Thus, the disease reaction in attached pods versus detached pods was compared. A split-split plot design with two replications (growth chambers as blocks) was used, with bean lines as the whole-plot factors, Xcp strains as subplot factors, and bacterial inoculation treatments for leaf reactions or pod treatments as split-split plot factors. The first trifoliolate leaves, later developed leaves, and attached and detached pods were inoculated. No effects of prior inoculation on the disease reactions of subsequently inoculated leaves and pods were observed, indicating that the different plant organs can be inoculated at different times. The fact that detached and attached pods showed similar disease symptoms would suggest use of the former to reduce environment variance and improve heritability estimates of resistance.
The heritability of leaf, pod, and seed reactions; stem color and abaxial leaf pubescence; and the association of these traits were studied in advanced dry bean recombinant inbred lines derived from the Phaseolus vulgaris crosses `PC-SO' × XAN-159, `PC-50' × BAC-6, and `Venezuela 44' × BAC-6. The reaction to Xcp was quantitatively inherited in all three plant organs. Qualitative inheritance was found for stem color and leaf pubescence. Low to intermediate heritability values were obtained for the leaf and seed reactions to Xcp. Heritability estimates were consistently low for the pod reaction to Xcp. Low nonsignificant Pearson correlations were detected between leaf and pod reactions, leaf and seed reactions, and pod and seed reactions, except for the latter two correlations, which were low and significant in lines from the cross `PC-50' × XAN-154. Genetic correlations between leaf and pod reactions and leaf and seed reactions were low and significant in lines from all crosses, except for Venezuela 44 × BAC-6 in the latter case. Genetic correlations between pod and seed reactions were low and nonsignificant, except in the cross `PC-50' × XAN-159, for which a low significant correlation was observed. No significant association was found between Xcp leaf reaction and stem color or leaf pubescence. A breeding strategy for improving resistance to Xcp in P. vulgaris is discussed.
The inheritance and heritability (H) of leaf and pods reactions and seed infection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) were studied in three crosses along with flower and stem color, and the association of reactions to Xcp in the plant organs. Recombinant inbred lines from the crosses `PC 50' × XAN 159, BAC 6 × HT 7719, and BelNeb 1 × A 55 were used. Quantitative inheritance patterns were observed for disease reactions in leaves, pods, and seeds. Stem and flower color were inherited qualitatively. Low to intermediate and intermediate H estimates were found for pod reactions when inoculated on the same time, allowing the infection to occur in a uniform environment. Intermediate to high H estimates were found for leaf and seed reactions to Xcp, respectively. Significant positive intermediate to moderately high correlations were found between the reactions to Xcp of the first trifoliolate with later-developed leaves and pods in all three populations. The moderately high genetic correlations between leaves and pods suggested that some common genes may control the reactions to Xcp in these plant organs. No association was detected between flower or stem color and reactions to Xcp.
Heritabilities (H) of seed transmission and leaf and pod reactions to common bacterial blight (CBB) Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) and to web blight (WB) Thanatephorus cucumeris (Tc) were studied. The reaction to CBB was quantitatively inherited. H values of .36, .46, and .34 for leaf reaction, .14, .12, and .27 for pod reaction, .53, .26, and .36 for seed transmission were estimated based on variation of F6 lines derived from bean crosses 'PC-50' × XAN-159, 'PC-50'× BAC-6, and 'Venezuela 44' × BAC-6 (greenhouse, NE). No significant correlations were detected between leaf and pod reactions or between pod reaction and seed transmission. Quantitative inheritance patterns were observed for leaf reactions to Xcp, Tc, and architecture (AR) in F6lines from the cross BAC-6 × HT 7719 (field, Dominican Republic). H values of .23 (CBB), .14 (WB), and .30 (AR) were obtained. No significant correlations were detected between CBB with WB or AR. A low correlation (+.22) was found between WB and AR.
Diseases of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are primary constraints affecting bean production. Information on tagging and mapping of genes for disease resistance is expected to be useful to breeders. The objectives of this study were to develop a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linkage map using 78 F9 recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a Middle-American common bean cross Great Northern Belneb RR-1 [resistant to common bacterial blight (CBB) and halo blight (HB)] × black A 55 [dominant I gene resistance to bean common mosaic potyvirus] and to map genes or QTL (quantitative trait loci) for resistance to CBB, HB, BCMV (bean common mosaic virus), and BCMNV (bean common mosaic necrosis virus) diseases. The RI lines were evaluated for resistance to leaf and pod reactions to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) (Smith Dye) strain EK-11, leaf reactions to two Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) (Burkholder) Young et al. (1978) strains HB16 and 83-Sc2A, and BCMV strain US-5 and BCMNV strain NL-3. The linkage map spanned 755 cM, including 90 markers consisting of 87 RAPD markers, one sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), the I gene, and a gene for hypersensitive resistance to HB 83-Sc2A. These were grouped into 11 linkage groups (LG) corresponding to the 11 linkage groups in the common bean integrated genetic map. A major gene and QTL for leaf resistance to HB were mapped for the first time. Three QTL for leaf reactions to HB16 were found on linkage groups 3, 5, and 10. Four regions on linkage groups 2, 4, 5, and 9, were significantly associated with leaf reactions to HB strain 83-Sc2A. The gene controlling the hypersensitive reaction to HB 83-Sc2A mapped to the same region as the QTL on LG 4. The I locus for resistance to BCMV and BCMNV was mapped to LG 2 at about 1.4 cM from RAPD marker A10.1750. Five and four markers were significantly associated with QTL for resistance to CBB in leaves and pods, respectively, with four of them associated with resistance in both plant organs. A marker locus was discovered on LG 10, W10.550, which could account for 44% and 41% of the phenotypic variation for CBB resistance in leaves and pods, respectively. QTL for resistance in pod to CBB, leaf resistance to HB, and the I gene were linked on LG 2.