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  • Author or Editor: A.G. Hunter x
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Screening for resistance to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and rootknot nematode on the same plant is possible if the two pathogens do not interact significantly. To determine if such interactions were present four cultivars were planted in 72-cell styrofoam flats, with a combination of BlCMV and nematode inoculations (--, -+, +-, and ++). `Freezegreen' is known to be susceptible to both pathogens, `Mississippi Silver' is resistant to both, `California Blackeye #5' is susceptible to BlCMV, and `Worthmore' is resistant to BlCMV. Nematode treated seeds were inoculated at planting with 2,000 eggs of (Meloidogyne incognita Race 3); BlCMV was inoculated on primary leaves a week later. Plants were visually rated for symptoms: either negative or positive for BlCMV and 1-5, no galls and heavily galled respectively, for rootknot. Analyses of variance using percentage of plants negative for virus symptoms or average nematode score as the dependent variable, resulted in non-significant virus × nematode interactions. Results by cultivar indicated simultaneous screening did not change their resistance/susceptible classifications.

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Nine southernpeas, varying in their resistance to cowpea curculio, and the susceptible California Blackeye # 5 (CBE) were tested with six treatments: methyl parathion and endosulfan at recommended and one-quarter rate, a control with tractor traffic, and one without traffic. CBE had 42.7% curculio-damaged seeds over all treatment, while resistant entries ranged from 3.7% to 9.5%. Over all entries, methyl parathion at the recommended rate resulted in the lowest percentage of curculio-damaged seed (7.3%); endosulfan at the recommended rate was next with 9.1%. The percentage of damaged seed was not significantly different for the methyl parathion and endosulfan treatments using one-quarter recommended rates, the control with traffic, and the control without traffic—10.8%, 11.2%, 12.6%, and 11.7%, respectively. `Carolina Cream' (3.7% damaged seed over all treatments) and methyl parathion at the recommended rate resulted in the lowest percentage of curculio damaged seed: 1.3%.

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Four southernpea (cowpea) [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivars representing various combinations of resistance and susceptibility to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood] were used to determine effectiveness of simultaneous screening of plants for resistance to both pathogens. Plants were inoculated with both pathogens simultaneously, each pathogen separately, or left uninoculated as controls. The resistance classification of the cultivars based on treatments with only one pathogen was not different from that based on the treatment with both pathogens. Virus × nematode interaction was not a significant source of variation in BlCMV symptoms and root-knot nematode galls. Simultaneous screening for both pathogens in southernpeas appears to be a feasible option.

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Seed harvested from 41 entries in the 1994 southernpea variety trial was grown in a greenhouse for evaluation of seedborne mosaic viruses. When second trifoliate leaves were fully expanded, 100 plants per plot per block (4) were evaluated for blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (B1CMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cowpea severe mosaic virus (CSMV), and southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV). The average number of plants with virus symptoms ranged from 2% (Pinkeye Pinkpod) to 44% (Bettergreen). Plants with symptoms were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At least one virus was detected with ELISA in all entries, except for `Zipper Cream' in which none were evident. All viruses were detected in seven entries. B1CMV and CMV were present in 13. CMV was present in all but `Zipper Cream', `Mississippi Cream', and `Texas Pinkeye'. Symptomatology was poorly correlated to ELISA results: six entries having all four viruses had symptoms on less than 13% of their plants.

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Chinese chestnut, Castanea mollissima Bl., is resistant to chestnut blight incited by Endothia parasitica Murr., a disease which eliminated almost all American chestnuts, C. dentata (Marsh) Borkh. Two or three nuts are usually present in each bur of Chinese chestnuts; the better ones are excellent in quality. Chinese chestnuts grow over a large part of the United States; however, they seem best adapted to the southeastern region.

Open Access