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  • Author or Editor: A.G Taylor x
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Field studies were. conducted in 1992 and 1993 to evaluate vacuum planters with respect to precision placement of seeds and to separately study plant spacing and emergence uniformity on stand establishment and yield. All studies were. performed with Bush Blue Lake 47. In 1992, a cooperative study was conducted with the Experiment Station and ten growers in Upstate New York representing four makes of commercial planters. No planter was able to precision seed, and seedling emergence revealed a large tendency to clump plant, with less errors made in the form of misses or skips. In 1993, tractor planting speed was studied as a variable from 3.4 to 12.3 KPH (2.1 to 7.6 MPH) on spacing uniformity and yield. The average number of seedlings per meter of row was similar for all treatments, however, the variation in spacing between plants generally increased as planter speed increased. In research plots, in-rowspacing and emergence uniformity were studied. Plant population was held constant and three in-row spacings were. developed (1 plant 5 cm apart, 2 plants 10 cm apart or 3 plants 15 cm apart). There were. no differences in yield in this study. Daily emergence was recorded and seedlings were grouped into three categories based on their time to emergence (early, medium or late). Yield was more than twice as much from early than late emerging seedlings, while the medium group was intermediate with respect to yield.

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The seedcoat permeability, uptake, and transport of model fluorescent tracers were investigated in snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), onion (Allium cepa), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. Nine fluorescent tracers and one vital stain were selected to represent a diversity of physicochemical properties (lipophilicity, electrical charge, etc.) and to simulate behavior of applied seed treatments. To study seedcoat permeability, tracers were applied to seeds as dry powders, and treated seeds were sown in moistened sand at 20 °C and removed after 18 to 24 h, a time before visible germination. Imbibed seeds were dissected and fluorescence (staining) was observed in embryos with a dissecting microscope under ultraviolet (365 nm) or visible radiation. Seedcoat permeability of species to solutes was grouped into three categories: 1) permeable—snapbeans; 2) selectively permeable—tomato, pepper, and onion; and 3) non-permeable—cucumber and lettuce. Systemic tracers that failed to permeate seedcoats during seed imbibition were taken up by roots or hypocotyls after visible germination.

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Authors: and

Abstract

Deterioration of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed quality during accelerated aging at 42°C and 100% relative humidity was accompanied by a decline in germination, radicle emergence, hypocotyl length, and ethylene production. Field emergence of 5 seed lots had a highly significant correlation with ethylene production rates when measured after 22 to 23.5 hours of imbibition at 25°. Seed lots that produced low levels of ethylene emerged poorly in the field. Results indicate that determination of ethylene production of imbibed seeds might be a useful method for detecting changes in seed vigor.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding tomato fruit abnormalities variously termed “internal browning”, “gray wall”, “blotchy ripening”, and other less common terms such as “cloud” and “waxy patch”. It is difficult to determine if these names refer to one or more disorders because of the similarity of symptoms in ripening fruit. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been shown to play an important role in the occurrence of various fruit symptoms (2, 3, 4), yet this factor frequently is not considered in dealing with ripening disorders (1,5,6).

Open Access

Abstract

Improved emergence rate and final stand occurred when ‘Ruby Queen’ beet seed pellets, amended with 1.10 to 3.95 mg polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) per seedball, were field planted. The number of seedlings per seedball 17 days after planting ranged from 1.39 to 1.60 for PEG-amended pellets, compared to 0.71 plants for non-PEG pellets or dry seeds. The PEG-amended seed pellets yielded 16 to 18 marketable roots per meter of row compared to 11 roots from non-PEG pellets.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Imbibed nonviable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have been shown to have lower density than imbibed control seeds. The purpose of this study was to investigate density differences associated with seed death. The relationship between endosperm integrity and the volume, density, and leakage of imbibed control and heat-killed ‘Montello’ lettuce seeds was studied. After an 8-hr soak, heat-killed seeds imbibed 23% more water than control seeds. The percentage of heat-killed seeds with density of 1.08 g·cm-3 was 2%, compared to 90% for the control. Mean electrical conductivity of the steep water was similar for heat-killed and control seeds. Seeds were punctured to rupture the endosperm layer surrounding the embryo. Puncturing the heat-killed seeds decreased total water uptake, as measured by decreased swelling, and increased density compared to intact heat-killed seeds. Leachate from punctured heat-killed seed had a 41% higher mean conductivity than that from punctured control seed. These data suggest that the undamaged endosperm restricted leakage of electrolytes from the embryo to the soak water. We speculate that the endosperm caused osmotically active solutes to accumulate in the extra-embryonic fluid of heat-killed seeds. This accumulation of solutes decreases the water potential inside the embryonic pouch, resulting in a greater uptake of water from the environment. The additional water uptake by heat-killed seeds would increase seed swelling and decrease seed density relative to control seeds.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Germinated seeds of ‘King Cole’ cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ‘Capitata’) were separated on a float-sink basis from nongerminated seeds by density differences. Aqueous solutions of varying densities were prepared from Maltrin 250. Brief exposures (<2 min) of the germinated seeds to 1.10 g cc−1 solution did not affect the percentage of seedling growth. The percentage of recovery of germinated seeds increased, and the percentage of germinated seeds decreased as the solution density increased from 1.06 to 1.09 g cc−1. Sowing density-separated germinated seeds improved both the percentage of emergence and time to 50% emergence for nonaged and artificially aged seeds. The greatest improvement in emergence was observed from the aged seeds. Dry seeds were separated into density lots of 0.95 to 1.05 g cc−1 in 0.05 increments with solutions of hexane and chloroform. Each dry seed density lot then was germinated and separated. The dry seed density separation did not improve the percentage of germinated seeds or recovery. No correlation was found between the densities of dry and imbibed seeds.

Open Access

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between seed density and seed quality of vegetable seeds hydrated by imbibing or priming procedures. Species studied were: lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), onion (Allium cepa L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.). Seeds of each crop were soaked in either aerated distilled water at 25C (imbibed seeds) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 at 15C (primed seeds). After soaking, seeds were separated into density classes with a float-sink procedure using aqueous solutions of Maltrin 600 (Maltrin 500 for lettuce) with 0.02 g·cm−3 density increments. Significant (P > 0.01) positive relationships were determined between seed density classes and germination percentages for lettuce, tomato, and onion seeds, whether separated after imbibition (R 2 = 0.93, 0.83, and 0.66, respectively) or after priming (R 2 = 0.95, 0.94, and 0.91, respectively). High-density classes of hydrated lettuce, tomato, and onion seeds in either the imbibed or primed treatment usually exhibited faster and more uniform rates of radicle emergence and, after 6 days, had longer hypocotyls (cotyledon for onions) than low-density classes. The significant quality differences exhibited among the density classes of lettuce, tomato, and onion seeds after priming will enable seedlots of these species to be upgraded by discarding the low-density, poor-quality seeds.

Open Access