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A. F. Iezzoni

Abstract

Fruit from 2 trees of each of 17 sour cherry cultivars were harvested in 1983 and 1984 and evaluated for 6 traits: fruit diameter and length, fruit firmness, soluble solids, and pit length and width. The amount and relative importance of the genetic and environmental variability were determined and used to develop a sampling scheme required for a specific level of genetic discrimination. Genetic differences accounted for the major component of the variability for fruit diameter and length and pit length and width. Soluble solids was the only trait with a significant year variation and year × cultivar interaction. In general, 5 fruit per tree and 2 trees per cultivar would detect the desired differences for fruit diameter and length and pit length and width, while a larger number of replications would be necessary to detect genetic differences for fruit firmness and soluble solids.

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J.A. Beaver and A.F. Iezzoni

Inheritance for seven enzyme loci was determined in seeds produced from crosses and self-pollinations involving four sour cherry parents and one open-pollinated ground cherry (P. fruticosa Pall.) parent. Segregation data were used to identify allozymes and determine whether sour cherry is a naturally occurring allo- or autotetraploid. Three allozymes were identified at the 6-Pgd-1 locus, and two were identified at each of the following loci: Pgi-2, Lap-1, Adh-1, Idh-2, Pgm-2, and 6-Pgd-2. Segregating allozyme patterns for the diagnostic loci Idh-2, Pgm-2, 6-Pgd-1, and 6-Pgd-2 tit disomic inheritance models and thus confirmed the allotetraploid hypothesis for sour cherry. Chi-square tests of independence between loci indicated that Pgi-2, Adh-1, Idh-2, 6-Pgd-1, and 6-Pgd-2 were not linked.

Open access

A. F. Iezzoni and A. M. Hancock

Abstract

Pollen samples from 4 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and 13 sweet cherry (P. avium L.) cultivars were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pollen size did not differ significantly between species or ploidy level. Variability in size both within and among cultivars was greater in sour cherry than in sweet cherry. Giant pollen grains occurred in a low frequency in both sweet and sour cherry, equatorial diameter being responsible for the increased size.

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Amy F. Iezzoni and Colleen A. Mulinix

Yield components were measured from 115 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) hybrid seedlings from 13 full-sib families to investigate the potential of breeding for increased yield. Those families with the highest number of fruit and reproductive buds had the highest yields. In general, increased fruit size was not able to compensate for low fruit count. Fruit set and flower count per bud were inversely related, suggesting compensation between these two components. Yield components from six selections chosen for differing fruiting habits were measured for an additional 2 years. In year 1, those selections with a majority of their fruit on l-year-old wood had higher yield efficiencies (yield per branch cross-sectional area) than those with fruit on spurs; however, but year 3, the higher-yielding selections were those that fruited primarily on spurs. The data are discussed relative to selecting for yield in a sour cherry breeding program.

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Amy F. Iezzoni and Colleen A. Mulinix

Bloom times were evaluated for seedlings from four full-sib and 14 open-pollinated families of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Time of anthesis for individual seedlings ranged over 17and 16-day periods in 1989 and 1990, respectively. In both years, most seedlings bloomed later than `Montmorency', the only commercially important sour cherry cultivar in the United States. `Pitic de Iasi', the parent of the latest-blooming family, is a natural interspecific hybrid between sour cherry and the cold-hardy Russian ground cherry (P. fruticosa Pall.). Hybridization between sour and ground cherry and intense selection pressure in the colder areas of the sour cherry habitat may have favored selection of the late-blooming character.

Open access

A. F. Iezzoni and C. E. Peterson

Abstract

A strong linkage (~ 1 crossover unit) was detected between the gene Bw for resistance to bacterial wilt incited by Erwinia tracheiphila (E. F. Smith) Holland and the gene M for pistillate vs. perfect flowers in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

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Christopher L. Owens, J.F. Hancock, and A.F. Iezzoni

Sour cherry and strawberry are examples of two Rosaceous species that often suffer crop reductions due to spring freezes. Breeding for improved floral freezing tolerance has the potential to mitigate the susceptibility of these plants to spring frosts. In model plant systems, researchers have been able to identify genes that play a role in freezing tolerance by initially searching for mRNAs regulated in response to cold temperatures. To search for cold-responsive freezing-tolerance genes in strawberry and sour cherry, it is necessary to first define their cold acclimation response. To test the hypothesis that sour cherry and strawberry flowers have the ability to cold acclimate, blooming plants were exposed to 4 °C and 16 h light for 14 days. Sour cherry styles and strawberry receptacles from open, fully developed flowers were excised, and electrolyte leakage curves were generated over a range of subzero temperatures. The temperature at which 50% electrolyte leakage (EL50) occurred was used to compare treatments. The flowers of two strawberry cultivars were tested for the ability to cold acclimate. Non-acclimated `Chandler' receptacles had an EL50 of -2.9 °C, while non-acclimated `Honeoye' had an EL50 of -3.4 °C. Conversely, acclimated `Chandler' receptacles had an EL50 of -7.7 and acclimated `Honeoye' receptacles had an EL50 of -8.7 °C, both are significantly different from non-acclimated values (P ≤ 0.01). Additionally, sour cherry styles were collected from the field at full bloom from a mapping population of 86 individuals from the cross `Rheinische Schattenmorelle' × `Erdi Botermo' and acclimated as previously described. The EL50 of the 86 progeny ranged from approximately -2.0 to -6.0 °C.

Open access

L.S. Chang, A.F. Iezzoni, and J.A. Flore

Abstract

Two sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars ‘Montmorency’ and ‘Meteor’ were evaluated over two seasons to determine the relative importance of different components of yield. A path coefficient analysis was performed to determine the direct and indirect effects of primary, secondary, and tertiary components on limb yield. Fruit number, fruit weight, the number of lateral buds and spurs, and fruit set were found to be the most important components affecting limb yield in both cultivars. However, the fruiting habits of the two cultivars were significantly different. ‘Montmorency’ produced 68% of its fruit on lateral buds on 1-year-old wood, while ‘Meteor’ had 70% of its fruit on 2-year-old spurs. When the data were standardized by dividing by limb cross-sectional area, ‘Meteor’ had a higher flower bud density (number of flowers/cm2) and yield efficiency (grams of fruits/cm2) than ‘Montmorency’. Although ‘Meteor’ had higher limb yields than ‘Montmorency’, the ‘Montmorency’ trees sampled had about four times more limbs than ‘Meteor’, and, therefore, higher tree yields.

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Christopher M. Long, Colleen A. Mulinix, and Amy F. Iezzoni

Microspore-derived callus cultures were obtained by anther culture of `Emperor Francis' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Branches were removed from the field in January and March and forced in the laboratory. When the microspores reached the uninucleate stage, anthers were placed on modified Quoirin and Lepoivre liquid culture medium containing 4.4 μm BA and 4.5 μm 2,4-D. After ≈60 days, callus that emerged from the anthers was placed on woody plant medium supplemented with 1 μm 2,4-D and 3 μm 2iP and routinely transferred. The resulting 270 callus cultures were screened for two allozymes heterozygous in `Emperor Francis', Pgi-2 and 6-Pgd-1. Of the 270 callus cultures, 154 expressed only one allele each for Pgi-2 and 6-Pgd-1; thus, they were considered microspore-derived. The microspore-derived callus cultures can be used as a linkage mapping population. Chemical names used: 6-benzyladenine (BA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); N6-(2-isopentenyl)-adenine (2iP).

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D. Struss, M. Boritzki, R. Karle, and A.F. Iezzoni

Two rootstocks from the Giessen (GiSelA) series of dwarfing cherry (Prunus sp.) rootstocks, GiSelA (GI) 5 (syn. 148/2) and GI 6 (syn. 148/1), are becoming commercially important and five other Giessen cherry rootstocks are being evaluated for horticultural traits. Since GI 5 and GI 6 are morphologically similar, a DNA fingerprinting project was undertaken to identify molecular markers that could be used by the nursery industry to differentiate these two rootstocks. The project was extended to include six additional Giessen rootstocks of varying pedigrees. Fourteen DNA primer pairs were tested for their ability to differentiate among the eight rootstocks. None of the primer pairs could differentiate all eight rootstock selections; however, three primer pairs could differentiate all but two selections. Two primer pairs, PMS 15 and PceGA59, were identified as the most suitable for high throughput screening of GI 5 and GI 6 due to the simplicity and the size of the base pair differences among the polymorphic fragments. These results demonstrate the utility of molecular markers to differentiate the Giessen cherry rootstocks.