The future of molecular markers in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding and genetics lies in the discovery of more useful markers than now available. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE analysis revealed four phaseolin types, “S,” “T,” “C,” and “H,” in proportions of 23.5%, 49.2%, 24.8%, and 2.5%, respectively. Molecular heterogeneity of phaseolin subunits was not apparent. On the basis of the phaseolin types and seed size, ≈75% of the landraces from Malawi probably were introduced from the Andean primary center of common bean domestication. The remaining 25% were small-seeded and probably originated from the Meso-American center of domestication of common bean. In Malawi, some amount of hybridization has occurred between genotypes from the two centers of domestication.
G. Acquaah, T.G. Isleib and A.E. Ferguson
M. Ngouajio, K. Delate, E. Carey, A.N. Azarenko, J.J. Ferguson and W.J. Sciarappa
As organic agriculture continues to grow, pressure from students and the public to develop novel curricula to address specific needs of this sector of agriculture also will increase. More students from the cities and with limited background in production agriculture are enrolling in agricultural programs with special interest in organic production. This new student population is demanding new curricula based on a better understanding of agroecology principles and more experiential training. Several universities throughout the nation have engaged in a profound curriculum transformation to satisfy the emerging need of students in organic production. This workshop was organized to bring together experts that are working on different organic and sustainable agriculture curricula throughout the country to share their experiences and lessons learned. Most of these curricula include a traditional classroom teaching component, a major experiential component, a student farm for hands-on experience and internships, and in some cases a marketing—typically a community supported agriculture (CSA)—component. Others programs are more extension oriented, providing applied training to growers outside of the university teaching curriculum.