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A. Talaie and A. Javanshah

Methods to shorten the required fruiting period for pistachio may reduce production costs. Therefore, grafting is recommended. We examined three grafting methods: fabble, cleft, and side. Fabble grafts had 66% success and therefore a higher efficiency than the other two types of grafts examined. BA or ascorbic acid did not have a considerable positive effect on graft healing and there may have been some negative effects. The results of microscopic dissection show that healing between rootstock and scion, i.e., formation of callus, xylem, and phloem tissues in the epicotyl stage, are similar and the plants propagated by epicotyl grafts enjoy maturity signs from ontogeny points of view in two growing seasons.

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A. Talaie and A. Khezrian

To select proper varieties, several seedlings of Carya illinoensis (pecan) were imported from the United States about 28 years ago and were planted at the Safiabad Research Center, Iran. Because of the existence of docogamy in pecan, protandrous and protoginous cultivars were first determined. Then, qualitative and some quantitative characteristics were studied in a completely random plant test and, with regard to treatments and repetitions, the total yield of trees, weight of kernel, kernel: bark ratio, oil percentage (fat), protein percentage, and the size of fruit were examined. With regard to all circumstances and statistical results, out of 14 examined varieties, varieties 12 (`Wichita') and 1 (`Gratex') were selected on the basis of their high yields, respectively.

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A. Talaie and B. Panahi

The type of pollen of date palm trees could affect the chemical characteristics of the fruit, and determine the quality and quantitative aspects. Careful selection of proper pollen for pollination of date palm is very important. This research was conducted for the selection of the best pollinizers and to study the effects of five varieties of male trees from the Shahdad area on the chemical characteristics of `Jiroft Mazafati' date. A completely random block was used for analysis of the 2 years of data (1991–1993). The study sight was in the Jiroft area of Kerman Province, Iran. Samples of fruit were collected after the pollination process and the required information recorded. Total dry matter, fruit moisture, total sugar content, fruit ash, and fruit pH were measured. Statistical calculations analysis and compound variations and evaluations of the treatments by Duncan's test indicate that, statistically, the different treatments have no effect on the fruit pH, and the difference are not significant. There are statistically significant effects on the other chemical characteristics of the fruit.

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A. Talaie and M. Zarrabi

To study the reasons for the losses of rooted semihardwood cuttings of olive propagated under the mist method, a 2-year experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Dept. of Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. In this experiment, semihardwood cuttings of olive (Zard cultivar) in four different media—heavy-(Al), semi-heavy(A2), medium (A3), and light (A4), all disinfected with two different concentrations of Captan—were used. Root growth stages with low, medium, and light densities in spring and fall were evaluated. The results indicate that there are the least losses in semi-heavy (A2) and medium (A3) media. This could be the result of a better ventilation conditions in these media, which activates N and Ca and finally accelerates the better growth conditions in all young rooted cuttings. On the other hand, it was clear that inadequate disinfection will result in losses of rooted cuttings, and using Captan at 2 ppm gives the best result. This research indicate that, with the higher growth rate, the first medium will have the fewer losses. The reason is the higher density and more durability and strength of the root, which control the disease-causing factors; so far that these factors do not influence the young roots. Finally, strong and dense roots show less losses. This experiment was designed in a factorial with randomized complete block and the averages were compared in a Duncan test and the results of abnormally distributed characteristics were shown by using logarithmic and sinus method.

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A. Talaie and M. Ghassemi

To determine the most proper bed, time, and wounding factors on the rooting of semi-hard cuttings of olive (Olea europaea), cuttings were selected and research was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. in Karaj. The required cuttings were taken from healthy and similar mother trees at the Roodbar Research Station. Then, semi-hard cuttings of 15 cm in length and 3 to 5 mm in diameter with four terminal leaves were prepared. Then those prepared cuttings were treated with IBA at 4000 ppm and Captan fungicide at 3000 ppm before planting. This experiment was designed in a factorial with a randomized complete block, with four media bed factors for rooting in seven levels (peatmoss + perlite, sawdust + sand, peatmoss + sand, and perlite, sand, and perlite + sand), the time factor for cutting preparation in four levels (May, August, September, and March), cultivars at two levels (Roghani and Zard Zeitoun), and wounding treatment at two levels (unwounded and wounded); there were three replications (20 cuttings per replicate per each unit). The results indicate that, among the selected beds, perlite with 53% of rooting average yield has the highest and peatmoss + perlite with a rooting average of 43.8% has the lowest. As far as time is concerned, those cuttings prepared in March show the highest rooting average of 69.3%, while those prepared in August show the lowest average of 12.7%. The comparison between the two cultivars shows that Roghani, with 60.4% rooting yield, is preferred to Zard Zeitoun, with 48.2% rooting average. There were no significant differences between wounded and unwounded cuttings with regard to rooting.

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A. Talaie and J. Seddigh

Research was conducted in the laboratory of Horticulture Dept. of Seeds and Plants Improvement Research Inst. in Karaj to review the possibility of canning soft and nectariferous `Mozafati' and `Karout' dates from Bam and Zahedan cities. According to the existing information, there are large amounts of postharvest spoilages on this fruit because of their storage in carton boxes or other packing materials and due to a large amount of nectar. Thus, there are physical and chemical changes particularly during ripening (date), and, as a result, there is always a severe effect on the quality of the product. It seems that canning of date under proper conditions could maintain the characteristics of the proposed variety and also the physical and chemical properties of the fruit for a longer time and it could be easily transported to all parts of the world. The samples for this experiment were collected in tamer stage because there are a lot of changes in the ripening stage of these varieties, which lead to severe fruit drop. The proposed samples were randomly collected from 10 date palms. The specifications and characteristics of the collected samples were recorded after the preliminary test procedures, washing, and disinfection. In this experiment a complete randomized design with four treatments were used. The experimented factors were variety and treatment. The experimented varieties were Mozafati and Karout and the proposed treatments were control tree–date syrup, sugar syrup, sugar beet molasses, and vacuum conditions. This experiment was repeated for four times for all treatments, and the best canning method was determined. The results indicate that vacuum conditions are the best canning method for Mozafati, while canning with sugar beet molasses is the best method for Karout.

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A. Talaie and H. Arouie

To determine the effect of NAD on prevention of preharvest fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' apples, a range of studies were conducted for 2 years in the Kamalabad area in Karaj City-Iran. In this experiment NAD at 10 and 15 ppm concentrations were applied in two intervals of 2 and 3 weeks before harvesting (131 and 138 days after full bloom) and at the same time nontreated trees were used as control plants. The results indicate that applying NAD reduces the preharvest fruit drop percentage and then is followed by the yield increase. Fruit drop percentage, fruit weight, length, diameter and volume changes, amount of soluble solid material, total sugar content, total acid content, fruit juice pH, and flesh firmness were measured and analyzed in this experiment. According to the results of this experiment using NAD not only prevents the preharvest fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' apples, but any unsuitable changes on the qualitative property of the fruit are avoided and there even is quality improvements in some cases compared to control trees.

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A. Talaie and J. Mojtahed

Skin russet in apple fruit, which causes a considerable decrease in marketing and exporting potentials, is one of the major problems in the word fruit markets. In this project, the effect of GA4+7, GA3, and dimethoate on russeting of `Golden Delicious' apple was examined. A complete randomized-block design with 13 treatments and four replications was used. In all treatments, the trees had the same size and medium growth and were homogeneous. The distances between trees were 6 x 6 m and the age was 18 years. The total number of trees, including controls, was 52. The 12 treatments were GA4+7 and GA3 with 10 ppm and 20 ppm concentrations in one and two times of spray in petal fall (PF) and PF + 10 days. Dimethoate at a concentration of 0.03% and 0.05% in one and two times of spray in PF and PF + 10 days. Fruit russeting was reduced in all treatments except with GA3. The largest decrease of russeting was caused by GA4+7, especially with 20 ppm and also dimethoate with a significant decrease in russeting. Seed number also decreased significantly with GA4+7 and GA3, but dimethoate had no significant effect on TSS, while ACD ratio was decreased significantly by GA4+7 and dimethoate, but GA3 had no significant effect. Compared with the control, the treatment did not show differences with the other characteristics.

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A. Talaie and B. Panahi

The type of pollens of the date palm trees could affect on the outward and physical characteristics of date fruits, so far to determine its qualitative and quantitative aspects (15). Therefore careful selection of proper pollen for pollination of the date palms is considered of high importance. This research work was conducted to select the best pollinizers and to study the effects of pollens of five varieties of male trees, from Shahdad area, on the outward and physical characteristics of `Jiroft Mazafati'. For analyzing the results of this experiment, a completely randomized block statistical project was implemented for a period of 2 years from 1991 to 1993. The site of this experiment was in Jiroft area in Kerman Province. In this experiment, after pollination samples of fruit were collected during unripe (Kharak), ripe, and dry fruit stages and required information were recorded. Fruit length and diameter, seed length and diameter, weight of fruit, weight of seed, pulp weight, ration of fruit pulp to seed, ratio of fruit length to diameter, volume of fruit, weight of one full cluster of fruits, and finally the time of ripening were measured. Statistical calculations, analysis of compound variations and evaluation of treatments by Duncan's test indicate that different treatments of pollens will have no effect from statistical point of view on the ratio of fruit pulp to seed and the ratio of fruit length to diameter, and there are no significant differences. But there are significant effects on the other outward and physical characteristics of the fruit, and the differences from statistical point of view are considerable. The type of pollens are effective on the ripening time of the fruit and this difference ranges from 15 to 25 days for different treatments, which is important from early ripening point of view of the product.

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A. Talaie and Sh. Khan Gholi

This research work was carried out for 2 years at Kelardasht-Mazandaran and Mardabad-Karaj Agricultural Research Stations to evaluate the rooting of selected and hybrid F12/l and Colt rootstocks under climatic conditions of Iran. Young F12/l and colt rootstocks (semi-hard wood and summer cuttings) available in Kelardasht Agricultural Research Station were used These rootstocks were also used for layering. Summer cuttings were taken in early July and, after wounding, were treated with IBA with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm and then put under mist. Three months later the rooted cuttings were evaluated on the basis of rooting percentage, number and the length of the main and the lateral roots and the length of the rooted section. The hardwood cuttings were prepared in two intervals (early Dec. and late March) and, when wounded, were treated with IBA with the same concentrations. Finally, the experiments were completed by horizontal layering of several rootstocks and covering them with soil. The results were used in a completely randomized block design in four treatments, and the averages were compared by Duncan test. The results indicate that the summer cuttings treated with 1000 ppm IBA have the highest rooting percentage in both rootstocks, while those treated with 2000 ppm gave the best results with regard to number and the length of the main root. The best result on the number and the length of the lateral roots are achieved in cuttings treated with 2000 ppm IBA. Number and the length of lateral roots in Colt and F12/l rootstocks are, respectively, high in cuttings treated with 2000 and 3000 ppm. IBA. In semi-hardwood cuttings, different concentrations of IBA were effective on callus formation and budbreak. Thus, there were more callus formation in high concentration and the number of budbreaks was reduced. Study on the layering method indicates that there are 6.1 and 3 rooted cuttings in every Colt and F12/l layered rootstocks respectively. The rooting percentage in the said rootstocks is 100% and 73.3%, respectively.