To test the effectiveness of different bioregulators in enhancing bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield and fruit quality, the commercial bioregulators CCC, NAA, GA3, and Biozyme® were sprayed on plants at flower initiation, followed by two additional applications at 30-day intervals. Biozyme produced a significant increase in total yield but ≈40% of the fruit were not marketable. Treatment with NAA produced the highest yield of marketable fruit. Treatments did not affect fruit firmness compared to the control. Gibberellic acid increased fruit ascorbic acid and citric acid concentrations and Biozyme, GA3, and CCC increased fruit soluble solids content. Biozyme treatment increased fruit fructose, sucrose, carotenoid, and lycopene concentration. Treatments had no effect on fruit calcium concentration or pH. Chemical names used: chlormequat chloride (CCC); naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid (GA3); GA3 + IAA (indoIe-3-acetic acid) + zeatine + micronutrients (Biozyme®).
A. Belakbir, J.M. Ruiz, and L. Romero
A. Ruiz*, D.S. Rodriguez, G.A. Picchioni, J.G. Mexal, and T.W. Sammis
Low-cost, sustainable wastewater treatment systems are needed for rapidly-growing communities of the southwestern United States. The objective of this study is to develop a practical management plan for land application of industrial wastewater on native Chihuahuan Desert vegetation. To assess environmental impact and create the management plan, wastewater effluent characteristics, soil physicochemical changes, and mineral uptake of the vegetation were monitored. The effluent was saline, ranging from 2500 to 6000 mg·L-1 of TDS and dominated by Na and Cl. Total N ranged from 10 to 40 mg·L-1. Soils sampled in Dec. 2002 (after 11 months and 64 cm of effluent irrigation) increased in salinity in the top 60 cm from 1.85 to 3.5 dS·m-1, and SAR in the top 30 cm was close to 15, but diminished with depth. Branch samples of the co-dominant perennial shrub vegetation members (Larrea tridentata and Prosopis glandulosa) harvested in July 2002 had elevated Na and Cl concentrations (0.4% to 2.1% of dry weight, respectively). By Oct. 2002, L. tridentata leaves contained comparable Na and Cl concentrations as those of P. glandulosa, yet removed 2 to three times more Na, Cl, and total N per branch, while maintaining their dry mass per branch. This raises the possibility of interspecific variation among the shrub species in salinity stress tolerance and capacity to remove wastewater contaminants. These data will aid in determining total vegetation removal of effluent components, preventing adverse environmental impact to the site, and developing a practical management plan suitable for small communities seeking cost-effective wastewater handling protocols.
José Egea, Jose A. Campoy, Federico Dicenta, Lorenzo Burgos, Jose L. Patiño, and David Ruiz
A. Lopez-Carvajal, L. Grijalva-Contreras, J. Valenzuela-Ruiz, R. Juarez-Gonsalez, and F. Robles-Contreras
Caborca, Sonora, is the principal raisin producer area in Mexico. It is estimated that over one-third of the fresh grape production is destined for raisins. There are no studies related to the insects that attack raisins in the fields during drying or in the processing plants where the raisins are stored for several months. The purpose of this study was to identify the insect pests and quantify the extent of the damage. Raisin samples were taken from the fields during drying and from the processing plants. The most abundant and frequent species identified were Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., Lasioderma serricorne Fab., and Cryptolestes pusillus Shoen. Also, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer, and Rhyzoperta dominica Fab were less abundant and had a lower frequency. All these species were found in raisins stored in processing plants and none were observed in the field samples. Damage range was from 25 to 100% and was related to the length of time in storage. The longer the storage time, the higher the percent damage.
Raul L. Grijalva-Contreras, Arturo Lopez-Carvajal, Manuel J. Valenzuela-Ruiz, Rogelio A. Juarez-Gonzalez, and Fabian Robles-Contreras
The total shell almond production in northwestern area in Mexico is ≈80 tons per year; therefore, almond fruit tree would be a potential fruit crop in this agricultural area. Also, this crop offers some advantages with lower costs than other fruit crop, and the water requirement needs for almond trees is low in support to the limited water availability. Our objective was to test new five almond cultivars of low chilling requirement. Almond cultivars were grafted on Nemaguard rootstock and planted during 1990. The data were collected from the almond orchard using the inshell kernel. The average yield during 1993 and 1994 were 970, 602, 552, 419, and 388 kg·ha–1 for `R-633', `Cavaliera', `Constantini', `Um El Fahm', and `Rane', respectively. `Cavaliera' and `Um El Fahm' showed good inshell percent and kernel weight. `Cavaliera' was harvested early in last week of June compared to the other cultivars that were harvested in mid-July.