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  • Author or Editor: A. R. McDaniel x
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`Gala' is an early season apple variety that has a distinctive aroma and flavor. Studies were conducted to identify volatile compounds that contribute to `Gala' aroma. `Gala' apples were harvested at optimum maturity in a commercial orchard. Volatile compounds were trapped on activated charcoal using dynamic headspace sampling and eluted with carbon disulfide. Odor profiles of the samples were determined using OSME, a method developed at Oregon State Univ. that combines gas chromatography and olfactometry with a time-intensity scale. Three trained panelists described odor characteristics of compounds eluted through a sniff port of a gas chromatograph. Compounds were identified by matching Kovats indices with those of standards and also by mass spectrometry. Butyl acetate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, and pentyl acetate were characteristic of `Gala' apple. Methyl-2-methyl butyrate, ethyl-2-methyl butyrate, pentyl acetate, and butyl-2-methyl butyrate carried apple-like descriptors.

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`Gala' is an early maturing apple variety that has a distinctive aroma and flavor. Its storage season is short and flavor volatile production is reduced following controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. The aroma and flavor characters of `Gala' apples were identified by 10 trained panelists. A vocabulary of 13 descriptors for the aroma of whole and cut fruit and 16 descriptors for flavor were used to characterize the changes of apples stored in CA and/or regular atmosphere (RA) during five months. When compared to RA storage, intensity of fruity (pear, banana and strawberry) and floral characters decreased after 2.5 months in CA for whole and cut fruit aroma and flavor. During the entire storage period under CA, aroma of cut apples retained high vegetative and citrus characters but had a less intense anise aroma. Sourness, starchiness and astringency were significantly higher, however, sweetness was significantly lower. A musty note was perceived in whole apples stored in CA for 5 months. Differences in fruitiness of whole fruit and sourness only were found between fruit stored for 4 months in CA followed by 1 month in RA and fruit stored 5 months in CA. Relationships between panel ratings of specific characters and corresponding quantitative analysis will be discussed.

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Abstract

Rooted cuttings of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex. Klotzsch cvs. Annette Hegg Dark Red and Eckespoint C-1 Red) were grown under a 16-hour photoperiod in aggregate culture to determine the influence of NH4-N and NO3-N on plant growth. Plant height, number of nodes, and shoot dry weight were reduced with NH4 in comparison to NO3.NH4:NO3 combinations containing more than 50% (6 meq) NO3 produced superior growth. Stunting, leaf chlorosis and abscission, and stubby brown roots were observed on plants receiving any level of NH4 in the nutrient solution and increased in severity as the NH4 concentration increased. Inferior growth observed with the NH4 treatments was not due solely to the higher levels of Cl and SO4 in those solutions.

Open Access

`Gala' apples were harvested at weekly intervals for 6 weeks, refrigerated at 0C, and evaluated by a consumer panel monthly over a 6 month period for overall liking, firmness, sweetness, tartness and flavor intensities. Firmness, titratable acidity and soluble solids concentration were also measured. Initial analysis of sensory data revealed multicollinearity for overall liking, sweetness, and flavor. The five descriptors explained 75 % of the dataset variation in the first two factors. An orthogonal rotation separated overall liking, flavor and sweetness, and firmness and tartness into two independent factors. The distribution of mean scores along these independent factors showed that panelists could perceive changes due to ripening and maturation. The multivariate factor analysis was better than univariate ANOVA at illustrating how apple maturity stages were apparent to untrained panelists. Firmness was the only instrumental variable correlated to firmness ratings in the sensory tests. None of the analytical measurements could explain overall liking.

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There are a limited number of peach and nectarine cultivars available with chilling requirements that perform well in the Gulf Coast area of Alabama. A test planting of 40 peach and 13 nectarine cultivars was established in 1985 at the Gulf Coast Substation at Fairhope, Ala. The plot was prepared and trees grown according to commercial procedures. Blocks of four trees of each cultivar were planted on a 6 x 6-m spacing. Chill hours were calculated each year based on number of hours at or below 7.3 °C; starting from and including the first 10 consecutive days a total of 50 hours were accumulated to 15 Feb. Data collected included date of full bloom, first harvest date, and total yield. Fruit were measured or rated for skin color, attractiveness, firmness, stone freeness, pubescence, flesh color, dessert quality, shape, weight, percentage with split pits, and occurrence of malformed sutures and extended tips. All cultivars were evaluated for 9 years (1987–95). The best performing varieties are discussed.

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Several microsprinkler treatments were tested on 5-year-old satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees to compare survivability of trunks and scaffold limbs in severe freezes. Three damaging freeze events occurred during winter, with two in 1995–96 and one in 1996–97. Air temperature dropped to –9.4, –5.6, and –6.7 °C, respectively. Almost 90% of the foliage was dead on the control plants after the first freezing event and 98% after the second. A single microsprinkler 1.6 m high in the canopy delivering 90.8 L·h–1 reduced injury; only 54% of the canopy was dead after the first freeze and 71% after the second. There was slightly more shoot-tip dieback on the plants in the microsprinkler treatments than on the control plants after the first two freezes. The amount of limb breakage by ice was minor. The third freeze killed 34% of the canopy in the control plants, but only 26% in the plants in the microsprinkler treatments. Use of microsprinklers increased yield in 1996, but yield for all treatments was very low. Yield for all treatments fully recovered in 1997, averaging 153 kg/tree. Although no death of scaffold limbs or trunks occurred, these results demonstrate that microsprinkler irrigation reduces damage to foliage and increases yield somewhat in severe freezes.

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Several microsprinkler treatments were tested on 5-year-old satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees to compare survivability of trunks and scaffold limbs in severe freezes. Three damaging freeze events occurred during winter, with two in 1995-96 and one in 1996-97. Air temperature dropped to -9.4, -5.6, and -6.7 °C, respectively. Almost 90% of the foliage was dead on the control plants after the first freezing event and 98% after the second. A single microsprinkler 1.6 m high in the canopy delivering 90.8 L·h-1 reduced injury; only 54% of the canopy was dead after the first freeze and 71% after the second. There was slightly more shoot-tip dieback on the plants in the microsprinkler treatments than on the control plants after the first two freezes. The amount of limb breakage by ice was minor. The third freeze killed 34% of the canopy in the control plants, but only 26% in the plants in the microsprinkler treatments. Use of microsprinklers increased yield in 1996, but yield for all treatments was very low. Yield for all treatments fully recovered in 1997, averaging 153 kg/tree. Although no death of scaffold limbs or trunks occurred, these results demonstrate that microsprinkler irrigation reduces damage to foliage and increases yield somewhat in severe freezes.

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Hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex) treatments were applied to 17 insufficiently chilled peach and nectarine cultivars ≈6 weeks after normal budbreak. Treatment effectively induced vegetative budbreak and reduced shoot dieback. The responses to Dormex treatments were linear, with the 2% rate being more effective than the 0 and 1% rates in most cases.

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The yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f flavicarpa Degener), a perennial vine grown in the tropics and subtropics, was successfully grown as an annual crop in a temperate zone. Fruit maturity was hastened by ethephon treatments to allow harvest before the mean date of the first killing frost. Maturity was advanced in a linear manner with application rates of 150, 300, and 600 ppm ethephon. Total yield was not affected by ethephon treatment; however, cull fruit producing no juice increased with increasing rates of ethephon, thereby reducing marketable yields. Soluble solids and ascorbic acid contents of the juice were not affected by ethephon treatment. Purple passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) did not produce blossoms.

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This study was conducted to determine fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin Citrus unshiu, Marc. `Owari' grown on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Soluble solids increased linearly and titratable acidity decreased quadratically during October and November for the four sampling years. There was no significant interaction between sampling date and year. There was a significant year effect for titratable acidity, but not soluble solids or their ratio. A 10:1 soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio was observed on 10 Nov. Variation in fruit weight corresponded with cropload. Fruit weight increased during the sampling period due to an increase in fruit length since there was no change in width. Peel color was yellow-orange by 10 Nov., with many fruit still exhibiting patches of green color. Because of some green color present in the peel, the fruit would have to be degreened for successful marketing in U.S. retail chain stores.

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