The productivity of marginal soils frequently found in the arid tropics might be improved by using VAM fungi as “biofertilizer” and as a tool of sustainable agricultural systems. Study of mycorrhizas of fruit trees was performed in 1987 in western Mexico. More progress has been made in resources, taxonomy, anatomy and morphology, physiology, ecology, effects, and application of mycorrhizas in fruit trees and ornamental plants production. Currently, five genera has been identified and inoculated plants showed significant difference in respect to plants not inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. Citrus trees were highly dependent on mycorrhizae for normal growth and development, while the banana plants showed lower levels of root colonization by different strains of VAM fungi. The added endomycorrhizal inoculum significantly increased root fungal colonization in fruit trees and reduce the time in nursery. The current status and research trends in the study of fruit tree mycorrhizas in western Mexico are introduced, and the application prospects in sustainable agriculture also are discussed.
J. Farias-Larios, S. Guzman-Gonzalez, and A. Michel-Rosales
S. Guzman, H. Alejandro, J. Farias, A. Michel, and G. Lopez
Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) is a widely grown crop throughout the tropics and subtropics. In Mexico, it is an economically important crop. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of watermelon has been reported from shoot tip culture, leaf, hypocotyl, and cotyledons. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro plant regeneration from axillary buds of triploid watermelon. Axillary buds explants were prepared from shoot of commercial cultivar in field of 60 old day plants. Explants of 2 to 3 mm were incubated 2 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) shoot regeneration medium containing 2.5 mg/L kinetin (KT) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), or gibberellic acid (GA3), followed by 3 weeks on shoot elongation medium supplemented with different combinations of the same phytohormones. The percentage of explants (83% to 90%) that produced shoots, expansion in size of explant (0.81–1 cm) and shoot length (6 mm) were highest in MS medium containing KT or IBA. In the shoot elongation step, shoot length (0.9–1 cm) and leaves number (6–7) were highest in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L of KT or GA3 and 0.2 mg/L IBA, but the better induction of roots in elongated shoot occurred on MS medium with 2.5 mg/L KT and 0.2 mg/L IBA. The results show that axillary buds from watermelon is an alternative for the micropropagation of this crop.
M. Arias-Gonzalez, J. Farias, S. Guzman, and A. Michel
Our purpose was to evaluate the vegetative growth and flowering of African violet (Saintpauila ionantha) grown in seven soils subtrates under greenhouse conditions. The following were tested: river lime, pine ushers, black clay, oak soil, peatmoss, Canadian peatmoss, and a compost soil. Pots were in a fully randomized experimental design with seven treatments, and four replications was used. A monthly 10N–20P–10K fertilization was applied to potted plants. The study lasted for 135 days, taking data every 15 days on leaf perimeter, length and elasticity of the petiole, plant height, and leaf color. Best vegetative growth was observed with oak and canadian peat moss due to their high capacity to hold water and their very good aeration. Least vegetative growth was observed with black clay, where plants failed to flower. Other substrates did not show differences in plant growth.
Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Mamdouh A. Fanous, Michel J. Lareau, and Deborah Buszard
Three mathematical indices were developed to estimate: a) potential for early dollar return or early ripening (IE), b) concentrated cropping (IC), and deviation or similarity of a genotype to known cultivars (ID). Early ripening genotypes with high yield early in the season will have larger IE values than late genotypes with lower yield early in the season. Genotypes with few harvests will have larger IC values than those requiring several harvests. The ID index helps to identify and group genotypes with similar characteristics. These indices condense large numbers of values or arrays of traits into single index values, thereby simplifying genotype comparisons.
A. Michel-Rosales, J. Farias, S. Guzman, G. Lopez, and G. Valdovinos
In western Mexico, banana is traditionally multiplied by vegetative reproduction in the orchard; recently, micropropagation of this species has increased considerably. Banana has been shown to give a positive response to AM fungal inoculation. However, the selection of efficient AM fungi species, currently propagated in vitro, has not been documented. The selection of the most-effective arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for growth enhancement of banana vitroplants is the first step toward development of an AM inoculation system. This work reports the effect of nursery inoculation of Glomus aggregatum, G. clarum, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, G. monosporum, G. mosseae, and Gigaspora margarita on the banana vitroplants growth. Pots (4 kg) containing a mixture of soil and coconut fiber (1:1) sterilized with methyl bromide were used. Treatments were arranged under a fully randomized experimental design with eight replications. The plants were harvested 120 days after inoculation and plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight of roots, mycorrhizal colonization, and intensity of infection were measured. Glomus etunicatum, G. monosporum, G. mosseae, and G. aggregatum were shown to be the most-effective endophytes. Plant height was increased, as well as the production of banana roots in response to mycorrhizal inoculation with these fungi. On the other hand, G. intraradices and G. clarum showed low levels of colonization. The data clearly show the most efficient AM fungi for future inoculation studies in nursery banana production.
J.G. Lopez-Aguirre, J. Molina-Ochoa, J. Farias-Larios, S. Guzman-Gonzalez, and A. Michel-Rosales
Amelioration and/or reclamation of saline and non-saline soils is based on the application of high quantities of agrochemical products or high volumes of water, which causes an injury in soil or downward displacement of nutrients to the lower layers in soils. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of application of citric industry waste on saline and non-saline soil. The waste has an electrical conductivity (EC) of 2.7 dS/m and pH of 3–4.2, 35% is organic material that is readily decomposed. This experiment was carried out on field conditions using applications of three different volumes, T1 = 3200, T2 = 6400, and T3 = 9600 m3·ha–1·m–1 and a control, no-waste, (T0), using just irrigation water (EC = 2.5 dS·m–1). The same treatments were added to non-saline soil. Effect of citric industry waste application in both saline and non-saline soils was similar. In all the treatments, EC was decreased with respect to T0 and soil before application (BA), the largest decrease was found in T3. pH decreased in the top soil layer much more than in the bottom layers. Ions were decreased in all soil profile. Organic matter (OM) was increased in the profile in treatment T1 with respect to treatment T0, as well as in the top soil layers in T2 and T3, but no changes were detected in the remainder of the layers in treatments T2 and T3. We can suggest that the waste studied can be used in the amelioration of saline and non-saline soils.
Eder J. Oliveira, Maria Lucia C. Vieira, Antonio Augusto F. Garcia, Carla F. Munhoz, Gabriel R.A. Margarido, Luciano Consoli, Frederico P. Matta, Michel C. Moraes, Maria I. Zucchi, and Maria Helena P. Fungaro
The development of genetic maps for auto-incompatible species, such as the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) is restricted due to the unfeasibility of obtaining traditional mapping populations based on inbred lines. For this reason, yellow passion fruit linkage maps were generally constructed using a strategy known as two-way pseudo-testcross, based on monoparental dominant markers segregating in a 1:1 fashion. Due to the lack of information from these markers in one of the parents, two individual (parental) maps were obtained. However, integration of these maps is essential, and biparental markers can be used for such an operation. The objective of our study was to construct an integrated molecular map for a full-sib population of yellow passion fruit combining different loci configuration generated from amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and microsatellite markers and using a novel approach based on simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimation of linkage and linkage phases, specially designed for outcrossing species. Of the total number of loci, ≈76%, 21%, 0.7%, and 2.3% did segregate in 1:1, 3:1, 1:2:1, and 1:1:1:1 ratios, respectively. Ten linkage groups (LGs) were established with a logarithm of the odds (LOD) score ≥ 5.0 assuming a recombination fraction ≤0.35. On average, 24 markers were assigned per LG, representing a total map length of 1687 cM, with a marker density of 6.9 cM. No markers were placed as accessories on the map as was done with previously constructed individual maps.