The effects of acetylene at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 ml·liter-1 and exposures of 4, 8, 12, or 24 hours on ripening initiation In mangos (Mangifera indica L.) harvested at three stages of maturity were investigated: Ripeness was assessed before and after treatment in `Tommy Atkins', `Ruby', and `Amelie' mangos by analysis of texture, peel, and pulp color development, soluble solids concentration, and pH. The initiation of ripening depended on the acetylene concentration, exposure time to acetylene, the physiological maturity of the fruit at harvest, and on the cultivar. Changes that can occur during ripening bad different sensitivities to acetylene gas. Acetylene treatment of 0.1 or 0.2 ml·liter-1 for 24 hours at 25C initiated softening, but had no effect on the other ripening processes measured. All the ripening changes measured were initiated with a 24-hour exposure to 0.4 ml·liter-1 in `Tommy Atkins', while 0.8 ml·liter-l was required with `Ruby' mangos. There was an interaction between gas concentration and exposure time taken to Initiate ripening. The 0.8 ml·liter-1 acetylene treatment required 24 hours to initiate full ripening, while 8 hours were required with 1.6 ml·liter-l acetylene and 1.0 ml·liter-1 ethylene. Mature and half-mature fruit showed a similar response to gas treatments; immature fruit failed to show full ripening initiation, although softening and peel color development were enhanced.
A.P. Medlicott, Mayé N'Diaye and J.M.M. Sigrist
A.P. Medlicott, J.M.M. Sigrist and O. Sy
The effects of harvest maturity of mangos (Mangifera indica L.) on storage tinder various low-temperature regimes and the influence of storage on quality development during subsequent ripening at higher temperatures were investigated. The capacity for storage of mango fruit depended on harvest maturity, storage temperature, and the time of harvest within the season. Development of peel and pulp color, soluble solids concentration, pH, and softening in `Amelie', `Tommy Atkins', and `Keitt' mangos occurred progressively during storage for up to 21 days at 12C. Based on the level of ripening change that occurred during 12C storage, immature fruit showed superior storage capacity than fruit harvested at more-advanced stages of physiological maturity. On transfer to ripening temperatures (25C); however, immature fruit failed to develop full ripeness characteristics. Mature and half-mature fruit underwent limited ripening during storage at 12C, the extent of which increased with progressive harvests during the season. Ripening changes during storage for 21 days were less at 8 and 10C than at 12C. Chilling injury, as indicated by inhibition of ripening, was found at all harvest stored at 8C, and in early season harvests stored at 10C. Fruit from mid- and late-season harvests stored better at 10 than at 12C, with no apparent signs of chilling injury. Flavor of mangos ripened after low-temperature storage was less acceptable than of those ripened immediately after harvest. Suggestions are made for maximizing storage potential by controlling harvest maturity and storage temperature for progressive harvests throughout the season.
A. Medlicott, J. Brice, T. Salgadol and D. Ramirez
No systematic curing and storage techniques are currently used with onions in Honduras; postharvest losses occur rapidly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of storage bins (maximum capacity 7t) that use forced ambient air ventilation to manipulate the atmospheric conditions around the onions. The desired storage conditions were 26 to 30C and 60% to 75% relative humidity. Ventilation regimes were manipulated in an attempt to obtain these conditions. The rate of deterioration in four varieties of onions over a 3-month period was determined and compared with onions stored under normal ambient conditions. Marketable onions in the forced-air storage bin compared to the controls stored under ambient conditions after 13 weeks were 82% vs. 37% for `Granex 33'; 71% vs. 40% for `Granex 429'; 63% vs. 31% for `Granex 438'; and 90% vs. 44% for `Texas Grano 502'. This represents a significant increase in the number of marketable onions after storage. All losses were increased by rain and tornado damage after 1 month of storage. The methods used to maintain uniform temperature and humidity conditions in the storage bin are discussed together with the problems encountered. The construction and operating costs are given together with the market prices and the required returns to cover the bin costs.