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A.M. Armitage and Meg Green

The University of Georgia trial garden has been in existence since 1982, and the method of evaluation and distribution of taxa has evolved over the years. Annual and perennial taxa are evaluated systematically, over the entire season, providing season-long summaries for each one. Annuals are evaluated every 2 weeks, and scores are based on plant performance, including foliar health, flower numbers and the appearance of disease and insect damage. Perennials are evaluated similarly, however flowering time, flowering persistence and height in the landscape are also noted. Summaries for each taxon are presented in tabular and graphic form. Many new crops have been evaluated and introduced to the floriculture industry. New crops are placed in the horticulture gardens and evaluated by garden personnel and by commercial growers and landscapers. Plants have been distributed free of charge to propagators and growers, resulting in rapid market acceptance of successful taxa.

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Steven McArtney, J.D. Obermiller and A. Green

A series of four experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effects of individual and combined applications of prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) and GA4+7 primarily on fruit russet, but also on fruit set, fruit weight, early season shoot growth, and fruit maturity of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.). A single application of P-Ca (138 to 167 mg·L−1) at petal fall (PF) reduced the severity of russet in three of the four experiments; however, multiple applications of 20 ppm GA4+7 at 10-day intervals beginning at PF generally reduced russet more effectively than P-Ca. P-Ca did not reduce the efficacy of GA4+7 sprays for russet reduction. However, GA4+7 sprays reduced the inhibitory effects of P-Ca on shoot growth measured 30 days after PF. A single application of P-Ca at PF had no effect on mean fruit weight at harvest. Fruit size was lowest for the combined P-Ca and GA4+7 treatment in every experiment, although there was a significant interaction between P-Ca and GA4+7 sprays on mean fruit weight in only one experiment. There were no consistent effects of P-Ca and GA4+7 sprays, alone or in combination, on fruit maturity parameters at harvest. These data show that a single application of P-Ca at PF reduced russet severity, and the effects of P-Ca and GA4+7 sprays on russet can be additive. The economic benefits resulting from a reduction in russet severity after combined P-Ca and GA4+7 sprays will need to be balanced against their occasional negative effect on fruit size. Chemical names used: prohexadione-calcium [3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3 cyclohexenecarboxylate formulated as Apogee (27.5% a.i.)].

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James L. Green, James A. Robbins and Bruce A. Briggs

A closed, insulated, pallet production system (CIPPS) has been designed to meet current challenges: 1) Elimination of production related pollution. 2) Reduction and conservation of resources. 3) Improvement of working conditions. 4) Alternatives to pesticides. 5) Prevention of temperature extremes and rapid temperature fluctuations in the plant environment. Biological feasibility of CIPPS was established in research on pathogen epidemiology, water and fertilize efficiency, plant growth and development in CIPPS. Water and fertilizer ion movement-removal in the closed system was plant-driven in response to growth and transpiration; water and fertilizer use in CIPS was 10% of that applied to open containers. Growth of 28 plant species ranging from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials was greater in CIPPS than in control, individual containers. Phytophthora cinnamomi did not spread from inoculated to noninoculated plants within CIPPS. Inoculation with nonpathogenic bacteria increased plant growth (gfw) in CIPPS but not in open plant containers.

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J. L. Green, J. Matylonek, A. Duncan and E. Liss

HortBase, a global electronic information system for classroom, distance education, lifelong learning and Extension, incorporates three innovative concepts: 1) Three-dimensional team-creation of the electronic information files (subject, communications, and information science authors working together from start to finish to create the file). Team-creation respects, uses, and develops the professional strengths of each of the three team members. 2) National peer review by each file creator's professional society (ASHS, ACE, and ASIS, respectively) not only enhances information quality and continued professional development of the authors, but also creates wider acceptance and use of the information. 3) Nationwide, or even worldwide, distribution of the workload and costs of creation, review, revision, and distribution of the electronic information, rather than individual efforts-expenditures within each state, will minimize redundancy and will enable us to do more as a group and to specialize individually. Capabilities of electronic information systems facilitate, indeed require, this new approach to information development and delivery.

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Benjamin L. Green, Richard W. Harper and Daniel A. Lass

Urban foresters must be able to accurately assess costs associated with planting trees in the built environment, especially since resources to perform community forest management are limited. Red oak (Quercus rubra) and swamp white oak (Q. bicolor) (n = 48) that were produced using four different nursery production systems—balled and burlapped (BNB), bare root (BR), pot-in-pot container grown (PIP), and in-ground fabric (IGF)—were evaluated to determine costs of planting in the urban environment. Costs associated with digging holes, moving the trees to the holes, and planting the trees were combined to determine the mean cost per tree: BNB trees cost $11.01 to plant, on average, which was significantly greater than PIP ($6.52), IGF ($5.38), and BR ($4.38) trees. Mean costs for BR trees were significantly lower than all other types of trees; IGF trees were less expensive to plant (by $1.14) than PIP trees, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.058). Probabilities that cost per tree are less than specific values also are calculated. For example, the probabilities that IGF and BR can be planted for less than $8.00 per tree are 1.00. The probability that a PIP can be planted for less than $8.00 is 0.86, whereas the probability for a BNB tree is just 0.01. This study demonstrates that the cost of planting urban trees may be affected significantly in accordance with their respective nursery production method.

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Jennifer Green, Derald A. Harp and Kevin L. Ong

Phytophthora diseases are economically important, requiring the use of chemical fungicides and, more recently, biological controls. Recent research suggests that composted bark products may lessen the impact of the disease, even in the absence of these chemicals. An experiment was conducted to compare chemical and biological fungicides to untreated pine bark compost. Impatiens wallerana plugs were transplanted from 288 trays into 1801 trays. All plants were planted into Berger BM-7, 35% composted bark mix (Berger Horticulture, Quebec, Canada). Media was prepared by premixing one of the five following fungicide treatments: 1) Control, 2) Banrot at 0.6 g/L, 3) Root Shield at 1.6 g/L, 4) Actino-Fe at 5.1 g/Ll, or 5) SoilGard at 1.6 g/L. Plants received no fertilizer. Three strains of Phytophthora were grown in 25 °C on clarified V8 media. Pathogenic inoculum was made by macerating the growth media and fungi in 100 ml H2O. Mixture was pulse-blended for 1 min, and an additional 200 mL dH2O was added. Inoculation was 5 ml per plant. Flats were kept on a misting bench, and misted twice daily for 15 min. The experiment was set up using a RBD repeated six times with three plants per rep. Plants were rated weekly for 5 weeks using a damage scale of 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no sign of disease and 5 being dead. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Chi-Square. Disease incidence between the biological, chemical, and composted bark treatments did not differ, with all treatments providing complete control. At least in this study, the use of composted pine bark media provided Phytophthora control equivalent to current chemical and biological fungicides.

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J.L. Green, D. Hannaway, J. Matylonek, A. Duncan, E. Liss and K.J. Starr

HortBase, a global electronic information system to support horticultural decisions in classroom, distance education, life-long learning, and Extension, incorporates three innovative concepts: 1) Three-dimensional-team creation of individual electronic information files (subject, communications, and information science authors collaborating from start-to-fi nish to create the file). Team-creation respects, utilizes and develops professional strengths and resources of each team member. 2) Nation-wide, or even world-wide, distribution of the workload and costs of creation, review, revision, and distribution of the individual electronic information files, rather than redundant individual efforts and expenditures, enables us to do more as a group and to specialize individually. And, 3) National peer review by each file creators' professional society (ASHS, ACE, and ASIS respectively) enhances information quality, continued professional development of the authors, and wider acceptance and use of the information. Capabilities of electronic information systems facilitate, indeed require, this new approach to information development and delivery. For additional information, http://forages.css.orst.edu/HortBase/.

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C.R. Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, A. Green and S.J. McArtney

The variation in natural fruit drop of ‘Scarletspur Delicious’/‘M.7’ (M.7) apple (Malus ×domestica) trees in a commercial orchard over a period of 11 consecutive years was visualized using box and whisker plots. Delaying harvest until 1 week after the normal harvest date resulted in fruit drop ranging from 2% to 33% depending on the year. The effects of aminoethoxyvinlyglycine (AVG) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on fruit drop and fruit firmness at normal and delayed harvests was monitored each year. AVG and NAA programs tended to mitigate fruit drop most effectively in years when natural fruit drop was heavy. AVG delayed the loss of fruit firmness, whereas a preload NAA program delayed firmness loss in fruit that were harvested 3 weeks after the normal harvest date only. A standard NAA program for drop control did not accelerate softening of ‘Scarletspur Delicious’ during the first 3 weeks after the normal harvest date. Growers should closely monitor fruit maturity and stem loosening during the harvest window each year to minimize the risk of major losses due to fruit drop. When timely harvest is not possible, perhaps due to unforeseen weather events or constraints in labor availability, or poor management, then use of harvest management aids such as AVG or NAA becomes critical on cultivars prone to fruit drop.