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  • Author or Editor: A. Gene Hunter x
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Correlation analysis was used as an aid in developing a scoring system to determine superior lines among 288 entries evaluated for resistance to cowpea curculio, southern green stink bug, and leaffooted bug. The following selection criteria were used (min/max values): days to harvest (58 to 111); sound pods (17% to 100%); curculio larval weight (3.3 to 10.4 mg) and mortality (0% to 80%); larval exit holes per pod (0.0 to 2.2) in a random sample of 25 pods; larval exit holes per pod (0.0 to 8.6) in a 10-pod sample selected for presence of punctures; punctures per pod (one to 15); punctures per exit hole (one to 14); exit holes per puncture (zero to one); curculio damaged seed (0% to 93%); stinkbug damaged seed (0% to 71%); sound seed (0% to 98%); pod length (8 to 25 cm); pod weight (1.3 to 9.2 g); seed per pod (five to 19); and average seed weight (10 to 327 mg). Lines ranking best for pod insect resistance were UCR212 = BAMBEY-5, UCR306 = IT82D-713, UCR194 = BBR-42, PI-218122, UCR90 = T W-3046, UCR200 = 24-lA, PI-115679, PI-145198, AU9lP3 = CCR-20, UCR202 (BROWN SEED), and IT83S-911.

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Twenty-two southernpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) cultigens were evaluated in field plots in southern, central, and northern Alabama to establish a set of varieties that would reach harvest stage sequentially. As first pods reached the dry stage, subjective ratings were made to estimate percentages of the following pod maturity stages: presnap, snap, mature green, and dry. Mature-green and dry stages were combined to give the total percentage of mature pods. From a general linear model analysis on SAS, lines were highly significant sources of variation in percentage of mature pods up to 83 days after planting. At least three maturity groups were apparent: >80%, 50% to 80%, and <50% mature pods. These are represented by `Santee Early Pinkeye', `Coronet', `Texas Pinkeye', and `Pinkeye Purplehull BVR'; `C.T. Pinkeye Purplehull', `Epoch', and `Pinkeye Pinkpod'; and `Mississippi Pinkeye' and `Corona', respectively. All the plant introductions were in the late category and generally are not characteristic of commercial pinkeyes; they may be valuable in breeding for lateness in southernpeas.

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Germplasm accessions and advanced lines were evaluated for resistance to cowpea curculio, Chalcodermus aeneus, southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, and leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, in a field planting in southeastern Alabama. A total of 300 entries were chosen based on reported resistance to these and other insects and diseases. Among six check lines with known curculio resistance, our best line, AU85-CCR-20, ranked in the top 1%, `Freezegreen' ranked in the top 8%, and four of the six lines ranked in the top 17% of lines with no more than 2.0, 3.8, 5.5 larval exit holes/25 pods, respectively. Entries with less exit holes than AU85-CCR-20 were UCR191, PI 170859, and PI 218122 with 1.0, 1.0, and 1.3 holes, respectively. Eight lines with pod resistance to cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, (92.3 to 99.9% larval mortality) were evaluated for curculio resistance, and four ranked in the top 32% with 7.0 or less exit holes/25 pods. Among curculio resistant lines, PI's 142779, 175959, 293468 and UCR168 had 10% or less of their pods destroyed by pod bugs.

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Selected tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes were evaluated for their fruit-setting ability under high-temperature field conditions. A temperature-controlled greenhouse study was conducted to determine the percent fruit set from the total number of flowers and fruit produced per plant. Ratings for set obtained under high-temperature field conditions were significantly (P = 0.001) correlated with percent fruit set determined under similar greenhouse conditions. Most of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) selections, Beaverlodge lines, `Nagcarlan', and `Red Cherry' could be considered heat-tolerant. Small-fruited, abundantly flowering genotypes were less affected by heat stress than larger-fruited cultivars. Prolonged periods of high temperature caused drastic reductions in pollen fertility in most genotypes, except `Red Cherry' and L. esculentum var. cerasiforme (PI 190256). Stigma browning and stigma exsertion commonly occurred on all lines, except AVRDC CL-5915-553 and PI 190256. Diallel analyses indicated that pollen fertility and fruit set under high field temperatures were primarily under additive gene control.

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