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  • Author or Editor: A. Erez x
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This workshop reviewed the problem of excessive vegetative growth in trees and its control by using dwarfing rootstocks, cultural methods, and growth retardants. Rootstocks are only partially satisfactory for apples, even though there is a wide choice of size control, and it is used along with less vigorous spur-type cultivars. All other species require some other means to control growth, since the number of dwarfing rootstocks is limited.

Open Access
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Hardwood cuttings of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA) and exposed to constant temperatures between 3° and 15°C for 44 to 47 days rooted well only at a temperature of 12° or higher. The medium temperature threshold for root formation seems to lie between 9° and 12°. Covering moist sand in winter outdoors at The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, with polyethylene raised the temperature at a depth of 35 cm by over 1° on bright days and improved rooting of the cuttings.

Open Access
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Magnesium chlorate [(Mg(C103)2] and hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2) sprays defoliated one-year-old nursery trees of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple, ‘Spadona’ pear, ‘Canino’ apricot, ‘Harry Pickstone’ plum, and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapevine, with no or minimal phytotoxicity. Bearing Maravilha peach trees were defoliated completely in autumn using Mg(C103)2 at 0.36%.

Open Access
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Thiourea will thin ‘Sunred’ nectarine and early peach cultivar flower buds effectively when sprayed at a concentration of 2 to 3% at the beginning of bud swell. Flower-bud thinning was not accompanied by any significant phytotoxicity at this period. Earlier and later application resulted in a reduced thinning effectivity with the latter also causing damage to leaf buds and young shoots. Fruit on chemically thinned trees were larger and matured earlier than those on hand-thinned trees.

Open Access
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Abstract

Peach leaf and flower buds showed different light requirements for opening. Leaf bud opening required light, the active range for the process was 600 - 690 m. Flower bud opening was relatively light independent. Green light or low light intensities slightly promoted it, while red and white light or high intensities caused some inhibition.

Open Access
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The actinometric method, based on photolysis of uranyl oxalate, was adapted for measuring integrated light irradiance in plant canopies. The unique characteristics of the new actinometers are their small size, the avoidance of pressure build-up in the measuring cell, the good correlation with quantum sensors, and their response to the cosine law. The proposed system is inexpensive and reliable, integrates light measurement over a relatively long period, and needs little additional instrumentation. Numerous measurement points scattered in plant canopies can be determined simultaneously by this method, thus improving assessment of the light regime in fields and orchards. This paper describes such measurements in a peach meadow orchard planted at 2 densities, where 27 actinometers were dispersed in each density treatment and replicate

Open Access
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Abstract

Semi-hardwood peach cuttings of 13 cultivars of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) collected in 2 locations were successfully rooted and transplanted to the field. Rooting was influenced by indolebutyric acid (IBA) concentration and basal wounding.

Open Access
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Abstract

Evaporative cooling (EC) of nectarine buds [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] during rest by overhead sprinkling when day temperature exceeded 16°C lowered bud temperature in bright days by 3° to 5°C. EC resulted in an enhanced break of vegetative and floral buds.

Open Access
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Abstract

‘Redhaven’ peach fruits were exposed to various durations of radiation at the end of stage II of fruit development. Exposure of only 3 days (totals about 6280 J·em−2) markedly stimulated anthocyanin development. Color development as a function of solar radiation followed a power curve with nearly maximal level obtained after 8 days of exposure (18,003 J·em−2). A similar response was obtained with shade screen (40% and 10% of full sun); the greater the shade the less red color developed. Shading fruit with aluminum foil resulted in softer fruit with a lower level of soluble solids as compared to control fruit. Fruit exposure to solar radiation therefore may have a direct effect on fruit sink activity.

Open Access
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Abstract

Rooted ‘Redhaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cuttings were exposed to diurnal temperature cycles. A severe reduction in lateral vegetative bud break was found in plants refrigerated at 4°C and given 8 hr daily exposure to 19° (±0.1°). Nearly complete chilling negation occurred in plants exposed to diurnal cycles including 8 hr of 20° or 21°. Also, effect decreased with increased time (0 to 8 hr per day) of exposure to 24°. Buds on plants exposed to cycles including 20° for 2 and 4 hr showed no chilling negation, but gradual increases in chilling negation occurred with longer exposures to 20°. ‘Harvester’ peach plants were exposed to 2, 7, or 12 days of 23° following the accumulation of one-fourth, one-half, or three-fourths of the chilling requirement. Chilling negation occurred only with the 12-day exposure to 23° when high temperatures were applied following the accumulation of one-fourth and one-half of the chilling requirement. No chilling negation was found after 12 days’ exposure to 23° if three-fourths of the chilling requirement had accumulated before exposure.

Open Access