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Christian M. Baldwin, A. Douglas Brede and Jami J. Mayer

With the emergence of glyphosate-tolerant cultivars, identifying management strategies not applicable with older cultivars need to be revisited. Objectives of these research trials were to quantify the growth regulation effects following a glyphosate application and to determine the safety of tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, various nitrogen (N) sources, and a plant growth regulator (PGR) on a glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass [PRG (Lolium perenne L.)] cultivar, Replay. In the growth regulation trial, glyphosate was applied at 0 to 1.03 lb/acre, whereas PGRs flurpimidol, trinexapac-ethyl, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl + flurpimidol were applied at 0.50, 0.18, 0.37, and 0.09 + 0.22 lb/acre, respectively, on 15 July 2010 and 2 Aug. 2012. In the tank mixing trial, dicamba (0.50 lb/acre), urea (15 lb/acre N), and ammonium sulfate [AMS (15 lb/acre N)] were applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate at 0 to 0.52 lb/acre. Tank mixing urea with glyphosate had minimal effect on PRG color, while adding AMS consistently improved color at the highest glyphosate rate of 0.52 lb/acre. Twenty days following a glyphosate application, only rates >0.40 lb/acre resulted in significant growth regulation compared with untreated plots. This study indicates that tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, a PGR, and various N sources appear safe to the glyphosate-tolerant PRG cultivar. Also, the growth regulating effects of glyphosate applications would serve as an additional benefit to annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control reported in previous trials.

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Christian M. Baldwin, A. Douglas Brede and Jami J. Mayer

Incorporating the use of glyphosate into a weed management program offers turfgrass managers increased flexibility and cost savings when attempting to control troublesome weeds such as annual bluegrass (ABG) (Poa annua L.). Field trials of glyphosate tolerant perennial ryegrass (PRG) (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars, JS501 and Replay, were initiated to determine glyphosate tolerance and rates required for ABG control. In the tolerance trial, glyphosate was applied on 15 Sept. 2010 and 9 Aug. 2011 at rates of 0, 0.29, 0.58, 1.16, 1.74, 2.32, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. Glufosinate was also applied at 0, 1.68, and 3.37 kg·ha−1 a.i. In the ABG control trial, glyphosate was applied on 17 June followed by 19 Aug. 2009 and 25 June followed by 25 Aug. 2010 at rates of 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.44, and 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. In the tolerance trial, linear regression analysis revealed a glyphosate application rate of 0.81 kg·ha−1 a.e. was required to cause 20% leaf firing. By the end of the trial, the highest rate of glufosinate resulted in nearly complete desiccation of ‘Replay’ PRG. For ABG control, after four glyphosate applications over a 2-year period, a rate of 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e. or greater resulted in less than 10% ABG. Untreated plots had ≈83% ABG infestation. Discoloration was not noted for either PRG cultivar at any point over the 2-year trial period. Based on the environmental conditions of each trial, results suggest a recommended application rate should be 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e. during summer months. This rate is sufficient for ABG control and also provides protection in case spray overlap occurs during an application.

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Christian M. Baldwin, Eugene K. Blythe, A. Douglas Brede, Jami J. Mayer and R. Golembiewski

The use of glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (PRG) cultivars JS501 and Replay provides turfgrass managers a unique option for annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) (ABG) control. Both cultivars can tolerate a maximum glyphosate rate of 0.81 kg·ha−1 acid equivalent (a.e.) after establishment under optimal growing temperatures (16 to 24 °C). However, tolerance to applications made immediately after germination and during low air temperatures has received limited investigation. Therefore, objectives of this research were to determine the seedling tolerance and low-temperature response after a fall season glyphosate application to both cultivars. Field trials were conducted in Idaho and Oregon. For the fall application response trial in Idaho, glyphosate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.58, 1.16, 1.74, 2.32, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. In Oregon, glyphosate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.44, 0.58, 1.16, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. At both sites, applications were made between late September and early October. To determine seedling tolerance, both cultivars were sprayed with glyphosate at the one-leaf stage (LS), two LS, three LS, or four LS at rates of 0, 0.15, 0.29, and 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. Across all trials, ratings included PRG color, cover, and injury. At both trial locations, regression analysis revealed a rate of ≈0.27 kg·ha−1 a.e. was required to cause 20% leaf firing in the fall application response trial. In the seedling tolerance trial, glyphosate applied at 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. at the one LS, two LS, and three LS had color ratings 8.0 or greater; however, color ratings dropped to 4.6 when an application was made at the four LS. Based on the environmental conditions of each trial, results suggest glyphosate applications greater than 0.27 kg·ha−1 a.e. as minimum air temperatures approach 0 °C should be avoided. Also, applications should be avoided at the three to four LS if the application rate is greater than 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e.