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  • Author or Editor: A. Delgado x
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Change in B content of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves during anthesis reveals the appearance of a potent B sink. This phenomenon was more marked in young leaves of bearing trees with a high degree of flowering than in nonbearing trees with a low degree of flowering. Applying B to the leaves at the time of anthesis increased the B concentrations in leaf blades, petioles, bark of the bearing shoot, and flowers and fruit 3 days after treatment. The results suggest that B is mobilized from young leaves during anthesis to supply the requirements of flowers and young fruit.

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There is the need to develop potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems with higher yields and crop quality. Field studies were conducted with cover crops grown under limited irrigation (<8 inches) to assess the effects of certain types of cover crops on potato tuber yield and quality. On a commercial farm operation before the 2006 and 2007 potato season, mustard (Brassica sp.), canola (Brassica napus), and two cultivars of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense) were planted. A wet fallow ground treatment where no cover crop was planted was used as a control. Before the 2008 season, barley (Hordeum vulgare), barley plus applied compost, sunflower (Helianthus annus), pea (Pisum sativum), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops were added. The results of these 2006–08 studies showed that cover crops have the potential to increase potato tuber yield and quality, as measured by tuber size (larger tubers) and appearance (e.g., tubers with reduced defects such as cracks, knobs, and misshapes). In 2 of the 3 years, most of the cover crops, especially sorghum-sudangrass, increased yields and tuber quality. Positive results from sorghum-sudangrass suggest there is potential to harvest hay from cover crops and still obtain tuber benefits.

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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is susceptible to chilling injury (CI), a physiological disorder caused by low, non-freezing temperatures that affects fruit postharvest quality. Little is known about the biochemical basis of CI, and the aim of this study was to identify proteins related to this disorder in ‘Imperial’ tomato fruit. CI and protein expression changes were analyzed during fruit ripening (0, 4, 8, and 12 days at 21 °C) after storage under chilling (5 °C) and non-chilling conditions (21 °C) for 5, 15, and 25 days. The main CI symptoms observed were uneven fruit ripening and color development, pitting, and decay. Protein analysis of two-dimensional gels showed that 6% of the detected spots (≈300) changed their expression in response to cold. The identified proteins are involved in carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, photosynthesis, and protein processing and degradation; two were related to cold stress, showing higher accumulation in non-damaged tissue of chilled fruit: thioredoxin peroxidase (TPxI) and glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GR-RBP). This is the first report suggesting an important role for TPxI and GR-RBP in cold response during tomato fruit ripening, and they may be acting through redox sensing and regulation of gene expression at low temperature. These enzymes and the other chilling-related proteins might be working together to maintain the cellular homeostasis under cold stress conditions.

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