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A. Dale, D.C. Elfving, and C. Chandler

Day-neutral strawberries produce runners less freely than June-bearing strawberries, which leads to reduced production in nursery fields. To alleviate this, a series of experiments were done to test how effectively benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) increased runner production. In greenhouse tests with the varieties `Tribute' and `Selva' and in field trials with `Selva', the combination of BA and GA3 consistently increased runner production in day-neutral strawberries, but not alone. Runner production increased linearly with BA dosage to 1800 ppm. GA3 produced very elongated internodes at high dosages, which led to fewer daughter plants in the field. Twelve-hundred ppm BA and 300 ppm GA3 are recommended as suitable concentrations to induce runnering both in the field and greenhouse.

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Bruce A. Kimball, Dale L. Nolte, and Kelly B. Perry

Hydrolyzed casein (HC) and retail products that contain HC are evaluated as repellents to minimize deer damage to trees and shrubs. Three different experiments demonstrate that HC is an effective deer repellent. Technical-grade HC completely eliminated browse damage to evergreen shrubs (Gaultheria shallon Pursh.) and conifers (Thuja plicata Donn.) during the test periods. Retail sources of HC (concentrated baby formula powders) are not as effective as pure hydrolyzed protein, but do offer browse protection when alternative sources of browse are available. For nursery, orchard, and reforestation applications, HC is a promising deer repellent to minimize losses due to browse. For the private homeowner, a simple repellent formulated with glue and a HC-containing baby formula may offer considerable browse protection when alternative forage is available.

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Heather A. Hatt Graham, Dennis R. Decoteau, and Dale E. Linvill

A polyethylene mulch system that changes its predominant surface color from black to white in the field has been developed and used to grow tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Mountain Pride) and squash [Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo (L.) Alef. cv. Dixie Hybrid]. The system uses a black photodegradable polyethylene mulch placed on top of a white nondegradable polyethylene mulch (photodegradable mulch overlay system). As the black photodegradable mulch degrades with increasing exposure to radiation, the white mulch surface is exposed. Differences among plastic systems in the percentage that breaks down may be explained by differential shading of the mulch by the vegetative growth of the crops. None of the formulations of the Plastigone brand photodegradable mulches in the photodegradable mulch overlay system had an effect on tomato or squash production. As the color of the system changed from black to white, soil temperatures under the mulch decreased. Tomato production remained unaffected in one of the two years as long as the mulch remained black for at least the first 20 days during that season. In year 2, the controlled mulch system color change affected neither tomato nor squash production relative to nondegradable white and black mulches used as controls.

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Louis B. Anella, Michael A. Schnelle, and Dale M. Maronek

Oklahoma Proven is a plant evaluation and marketing program developed by the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Oklahoma State University. An advisory committee comprised of representatives from state agencies, industry, and Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum Affiliate Gardens makes plant recommendations to an executive committee which in turn selects one tree, shrub, perennial, and annual for promotion each year. Trees and shrubs are selected 3 to 5 years ahead of promotion while perennials and annuals are selected 1 to 2 years in advance to give nurseries time to increase production. Marketing includes posters, billboards, pot stakes, and hang tags with the Oklahoma Proven logo and related extension service programming and news coverage. Consumers appreciate having help selecting plants and one retail nursery reported an 81% increase in sales of Oklahoma Proven plants. Funding for the program is provided by industry, Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, and a grant from Oklahoma Department of Agriculture.

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Louis B. Anella, Michael A. Schnelle, and Dale M. Maronek

Oklahoma Proven (OKP) is a plant promotion and evaluation program designed to help consumers choose plants appropriate for Oklahoma gardens. Aiding consumers with plant selection will lead to greater gardening success, enthusiasm, and increased sales for Oklahoma green industries. There are two major facets to the program: marketing, coordinated by Dr. Lou Anella, and evaluation, coordinated by Dr. Michael Schnelle. Plants to be promoted by OKP will be selected by an OKP executive committee based on recommendations from an OKP advisory committee comprised of industry professionals, cooperative extension specialists and educators, Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum affiliate members, and Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture faculty. Plants chosen for OKP must meet the following selection criteria: appropriate for gardens throughout the state of Oklahoma; readily available in the trade; limited input required, i.e. few pest or disease problems, tolerant of Oklahoma's diverse soil types and weather conditions; noninvasive; can be profitably produced. The OKP Advisory Board selected the following OKP Selections for 2000: Taxodium distichum; Spiraea japonica `Magic Carpet'; Verbena canadensis `Homestead Purple'; and Scaevola aemula. Promotional materials, such as posters and signs, will be available just after the first of the year, and the promotional push will begin in early March. Posters and signs will be distributed to retailers throughout the state free-of-charge and pot stakes and hang tags will be sold to wholesalers as a means of generating income for the Oklahoma Proven program. OKP plants will also be promoted through the television show “Oklahoma Gardening,” extension newsletters, and the press.

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Anne M. Lockett, Dale A. Devitt, and Robert L. Morris

Population growth and water limitations in the southwestern United States have led to golf courses in many communities to be encouraged or mandated to transition to reuse water for irrigation purposes. A monitoring program was conducted on nine golf courses in the Las Vegas valley, NV, for 4.5 years to assess the impact of reuse water on soil–turfgrass systems {bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.)}. The nine courses selected included three long-term reuse courses, three fresh water courses, and three courses expected to transition to reuse water during the monitoring period. Near-surface soil salinity varied from 1.5 to 40.0 dS·m−1 during the study period with the highest peaks occurring during summer months and on long-term reuse irrigated fairways. Although soil salinity at several depths on fairways and greens increased after transition to reuse water, this did not lead to a systematic decline in leaf xylem water potential (ΨL) or color. When the data were grouped as fresh, transition, or reuse irrigated, soil salinity on reuse courses were statistically higher (P < 0.05) than fresh and transitional courses, yet plant response on reuse courses was not statistically different (P > 0.05) than that observed on fresh courses. The fact that summertime plant parameter values often declined under lower salinity levels and the electrical conductivity of the irrigation water was rejected as a significant variable in all backward regression analysis to describe plant response indicated that management differed significantly from course to course. We conclude that proper irrigation management, based on a multitiered feedback system (soil–plant–atmospheric monitoring), should be able to maintain favorable salt balances and plant response as long as irrigation volumes are not restricted to where deficit irrigation occurs.

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Adam Dale, Patrick P. Moore, Ronald J. McNicol, Thomas M. Sjulin, and Leonid A. Burmistrov

Pedigrees of 137 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) varieties released throughout the world since 1960 were used to calculate: 1) the genetic contribution of founding clones to these varieties; 2) genetic relatedness among them; and 3) their inbreeding coefficients. Fifty founding clones contributed to the pedigrees of these varieties with a mean genetic contribution ranging from <0.1% to 21%. Varieties were clustered according to the genetic contribution into groups strongly related to geographical origin. Varieties developed in the former USSR and derived from `Novost Kuzmina' formed a distinct cluster. The remaining varieties were clustered in groups based mainly on whether they were of North American or European origin. Varieties were clustered also on the basis of Wright's coefficient of relationship-a measure of genetic relatedness. Cluster groups were related to their geographical origin and the varieties within the groups could be traced to similar intermediate parents. Inbreeding coefficients ranged from 0.0 to 0.625 and were related, in part, to the numbers of generations of controlled hybridization from common ancestors. The British group, with the largest number of generations of breeding, had a low mean inbreeding coefficient, indicating that inbreeding can be minimized with attention to the mating system. Strategies are suggested for maintaining and increasing the genetic diversity in the world's red raspberry breeding populations.

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Mark A. Walker, Dale M. Smith, K. Peter Pauls, and Bryan D. McKersie

The chilling tolerance of commercial Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (H2653, H722), Solanum lycopersicoides, an F1 hybrid of S. lycopersicoides × Sub-Arctic Maxi, and 25 BC2F2 lines of L. hirsutum × H722 (backcrossed twice to H722) was evaluated using a chlorophyll fluorescence assay. The ratio of the initial to the peak fluorescence (Fo: Fp) measured from fully expanded leaves was chosen as an indicator of plant health. Chilling induced an increase in Fo: Fp that was correlated with the sensitivity of the plant to low-temperature stress. Values of Fo: Fp remained low for cold-treated S. lycopersicoides and the F1 hybrid, which showed few symptoms of chilling-related damage, whereas the commercial cultivars, which were essentially intolerant to low temperatures, had large increases in Fo: Fp. A full range of Fo: Fp values was measured in the 25 BC2F2 lines, indicating that some chilling tolerance from the L. hirsutum parent was expressed by plants in these populations.

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Dale E. Kester, Kenneth A. Shackel, Warren C. Micke, Mario Viveros, and Thomas M. Gradziel

The spatial and temporal pattern of noninfectious bud failure (BF) expression (BFexp) was studied during seven growing seasons in a population of `Carmel' almond trees originating from twelve commercial propagation sources. All progeny trees were grown in a single experimental site with high prevailing summer temperatures. BFexp increased continuously but irregularly in each nursery population as measured as the proportion of trees showing BF and as an average BFexp rating. Populations from the 12 nurseries represented increasing clonal generations from the original seedling tree and showed increasing levels of BF, as well as a decreasing shape value and increasing scale value derived by a failure statistics model. Models for development, distribution and hazard functions were defined for each of the 12 sources studied. Only sources from the original tree and source A demonstrated potential for commercial use. A significant correlation was found between average yearly increase in BFexp and the average daytime temperature for the previous June. The June period coincides with a specific stage in the seasonal growth cycle when vegetative buds mature.

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Dale A. Devitt, Lena Wright, Daniel C. Bowman, Robert L. Morris, and Michelle Lockett

Irrigators in arid and semiarid regions that use reuse water must maintain positive leaching fractions (LFs) to minimize salt buildup in root zones. However, with the continuous feed of NO3-N in reuse water, imposing LFs can also lead to greater downward movement of NO3-N. It is therefore essential that deep movement of NO3-N be assessed relative to nitrogen loading under such conditions. We conducted a long-term monitoring program on nine golf course fairways in southern Nevada over a 1600-d period. The fairways were predominantly bermudagrass [Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers.; 35 of 36 site × years] overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; 8 of 9 courses). Courses were irrigated with fresh water, reuse water (tertiary treated municipal sewage effluent), or transitioned to reuse water during the study. Solution extraction cups were inserted at depths of 15, 45, 75, and 105 cm on fairways and sampled and analyzed for NO3-N on a monthly basis. Distribution patterns of NO3-N varied from site to site. Concentrations exceeding 100 mg·L−1 were observed at the 105-cm depth on all three long-term reuse courses. On the transitional courses, 72% of the variation in the yearly average NO3-N concentrations at the105-cm depth could be accounted for based on knowing the amount of fertilizer nitrogen (N) applied, the amount of reuse N applied, and the LF (Y = –42.5 + 0.18 fertilizer N + 0.26 reuse N –62.0 LF). Highest N fertilizer applications occurred on transition courses with little or no reduction in N applications after courses had transitioned to reuse water (pretransition courses 394 + 247 kg·ha−1 N/year versus posttransition courses 398 + 226 kg·ha−1 N/year). The results of this study indicate a need for a more scientific approach to N management on reuse irrigated courses.