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Young A. Kim and Jong Suk Lee

To investigate the differences of anatomical structure of neck tissue between bent-neck and strong-neck flowers, scanning electron microscopy of neck tissue during senescence of cut rose flowers held in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) was observed. Lignins in xylem, phloem, and interfascicular cambium of neck were stained to red by phloroglucine. More lignin was formed in the phloem of neck in rose flowers held in preservative solution than deionized water. Neck strength of cut rose could be increased by increase of lignin content, and this would prevent bent-neck and extend vase life. Parenchyma cells in neck part of rose flowers held in deionized water had thinner cell wall and less starch grains at senescence than those of flowers held in preservative solution at day 7. These starch grains would be used as energy source of rose flowers and extend vase life. Globular crystals were observed in the inner part of cells and had shape of large thorny. These crystals were cumulated in cell walls, then would prevent the activity of cell wall decomposition or increase cell wall permeability.

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Jong Suk Lee and Young A. Kim

Rose (Rosa hybrida) cvs. Red Velvet, First Red, Sonia, and Saphir stems harvested at bud stage were kept in deionized water or preservative solution (3% sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 0.1 mM ethionine) at 21°C under continuous light (1200 lux). Vase life of `First Red' and `Saphir' was much longer than those of `Red Velvet' and `Sonia' held in deionized water. Severe bent-neck was observed in `Red Velvet' flowers held in deionized water in 8 days after harvest. Rose flowers held in preservative solution resulted in extended vase life and inhibited senescence and bent-neck in four cultivars. Neck strength of `First Red' and `Saphir' rose flowers having no bent-neck and long vase life was stronger than `Red Velvet' and `Sonia' having frequent bent-neck and short vase life. Neck strength was also increased by preservative solution. Faster changes of water balance to minus value were detected in the rose flowers held in deionized water than those held in preservative solution. `Red Velvet' flowers having much absorption of water but more transpiration caused a fast change to a minus value in water balance and early bent-neck. Cell sap pH gradually increased in petal and stem of rose cultivars during senescence. Cell sap pH of flowers held in distilled water were higher than those held in preservative solution. Increased cell sap pH of rose flowers caused rapid change to blueing and yellowing of petals.

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Jong Suk Lee, Young A Kim and Young Mi Sin

Cut snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L. cvs. Fujinoyuki, Oakland, and Bismarck) were harvested at three different stages and pulsed with silver thiosulfate (STS). Then, the flowers were treated with several preservative solutions to test the effects on vase life and flower quality. Proper storage methods were also investigated. The best harvesting time of snapdragon was when seven to nine florets were opened in a spike. The flowers harvested at this stage had more fresh weight, increased number of opened flowers per spike, and longer vase life than those harvested at earlier stages. Pulsing with 0.2 mM STS for 16 h improved flower quality and prolonged vase life. The preservative solution containing 2% sucrose + 150 ppm 8-hydroxyquinone citrate (HQC) + 25 ppm AgNO3 prolonged vase life. However, this solution caused longer internode between florets and excessive elongation of spike. The preservative solution containing 2% sucrose + 150 ppm HQC + 25 ppm AgNO3 + 50 ppm daminozide improved flower quality by prolonging vase life, reducing the length of internode between florets, and preventing excessive elongation of spike. The flowers held in 50% 7-Up had 2 times prolonged vase life compared to water control. The flowers held in 4% ethyl alcohol also had prolonged vase life and increased fresh weight. Ethylene caused floret abscission and STS pretreatment prevented this floret abscission. Ethylene production in cut snapdragons maintained 2 to 6 nl/g fresh weight per h during vase life. The prolonging storage at low temperature (1C) shortened vase life. The flowers pretreated with STS, and then held in preservative solution during cold storage, had better flower quality and longer vase life than those in plain water.

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A-Young Lee, Seon-Ok Kim and Sin-Ae Park

This study aimed to investigate elementary school students’ needs and preferences regarding urban agriculture. In total, 1268 students in grades 4 to 6 at four elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea, participated in the study. A 21-item questionnaire was developed and distributed in each school by trained researchers for 3 weeks in Oct. 2017. More than 73.7% of the students reported having an awareness of and need for urban agriculture, and 86.8% (N = 1048) indicated their participation intention. Students noted needing urban agriculture for scientific inquiry and recommended including a learning activity in urban agriculture (35.4%, N = 400) for psychological stability and stress reduction (20.9%, N = 236), and for leisure and hobby purposes (16.2%, N = 183). Students reported participating in urban agriculture activities in indoor and outdoor spaces (33.8%, N = 423) for more than 30 minutes and less than 60 minutes (42.0%, N = 525) twice per week (40.2%, N = 501) with friends (72.9%, N = 818). Preferred urban agriculture indoor activities were planting plants (21.8%, N = 822), arranging flowers (20.9%, N = 788), and making craftwork using plants (18.9%, N = 714). Harvesting (20.8%, N = 790), watering (15.1%, N = 570), and planting transplants (13.1%, N = 493) were preferred outdoor activities. Other preferred activities included playing with livestock (22.4%, N = 884), cooking with the harvested crops (21.3%, N = 805), and feeding livestock (17.2%, N = 650). The female students demonstrated greater perception, experience, awareness of the necessity, and willingness to participate in urban agriculture compared with male students (P = 0.01). The lower the grade, the more students perceived the necessity of urban agriculture (P < 0.001). The results of this study can provide basic data for the practical development of urban agriculture programs for elementary school students.

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Young Sang Lee, G Mitiku and A.G. Endress

The hypothesis that Al3+ interferes with membrane biophysical properties has been tested. Plasma membrane expansion/contraction in protoplasts isolated from red beet was induced by decreasing or increasing the osmolarity of extracellular solutions. The percentage of Iysed protoplasts was measured to characterize the effects of Al3+ on the ability of protoplasts to increase their plasma membrane surface area. In control solutions (800 mM sorbitol), 31.4% of protoplasts Iysed following osmotic dilution from 1200 mM. Al3+ treatment (5 mM) decreased the proportion of Iysed protoplasts by 7.7% and Ca2+ (5 mM) by 17% compared to control. Lanthanum (La3+), however, proved to be the most efficient ion for protection against Iysis (3.3%). Under hypertonic solutions, Al3+ treatment helped protoplasts maintain their roundness, diameter, and cross-sectional area compared to the control (1.5 M sorbitol), thus, altering the protoplasts “roundness” as determined by image analysis parameters. The results suggest that a decrease in the proportion of Iysed protoplasts in the presence of Al3+ may be induced due to changes in membrane permeability to water.

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A-Young Lee, Sin-Ae Park, Young-Jin Moon and Ki-Cheol Son

The objective of this study was to analyze the kinematic and kinetic characteristics of eight horticultural activities (HAs): digging, raking, sowing seeds, transplanting plants, near-distance weeding, far-distance weeding, low-height harvesting, and high-height harvesting. Twenty-four male university students (average age, 23.4 ± 2.9 years) participated in this study. Balance and postural stability factors [e.g., center of mass (CoM), ground reaction force (GRF), and center of pressure (CoP)] and postural control strategy factors (e.g., joint angles, joint moment, and muscle activation of the trunk and lower limbs) were assessed using a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system, force platform, and surface electromyography. A total of eight HAs were distinguished in three motions: stepping, squatting, and stooping. In performing the eight HAs, CoM shifting occurred and balance of the subjects became unstable. These forced compensatory motor strategies to maintain balance by exertion of GRF from the two feet, movement of the CoP, and a combination of musculoskeletal system exercises of the lower limbs and trunk occurred. The kinematic and kinetic characteristics of lower limb motions were significantly different across the HAs (P = 0.05). The kinematic and kinetic characteristics of HAs were similar to those of the functional tasks during balance improvement training motions and activities of daily living. The current study provides useful reference data for developing a horticultural therapy program for balance improvement in patients who need physical rehabilitation.

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Kwan-Suk Lee and Ki-Cheol Son

The objective of this study was to determine the exercise intensities of 10 gardening tasks for men and women in their 20s. Fifteen university students [(mean ± SD) age 24.7 ± 1.4 years and body mass index 23.5 ± 4.1 kg·m−2] participated in this study. On two occasions, the subjects completed 10 gardening tasks in a high tunnel and a grassy area with weeds located near the high tunnel in Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea. They performed five gardening tasks randomly ordered on each occasion. Subjects did each gardening task for 5 minutes and then sat and rested in a chair for 5 minutes before the next task. Each subject wore a portable telemetric calorimeter and respired into the facemask during the gardening tasks and resting periods to measure their oxygen uptake. The subjects also wore a heart rate monitor under their breast to record heart rate data during the gardening tasks and resting periods via radiotelemetry. The 10 gardening tasks performed by the subjects were determined to be moderate- to high-intensity physical activities [3.5 ± 0.5 to 6.3 ± 1.2 metabolic equivalents (MET)]. In conclusion, the exercise intensity of gardening tasks should be useful information for developing garden exercise programs that meet the recommended physical activity for health benefits in adults.

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Ki-Cheol Son, Wang-Lok Lee and Dae-Sik Kim

The present study aimed to assess the physical and psychological health benefits of a 15-session gardening intervention in elderly women and to investigate satisfaction of the gardening intervention. Fifty elderly women (age >70 years) at two senior community centers located in Seoul, South Korea, were selected to participate in this study. Twenty-four elderly women at senior community center “A” participated in a twice-weekly gardening intervention (≈50 minutes per session) during the period Sept. to Nov. 2015; 26 elderly women at senior community center “B” comprised a control group. At the completion of the 15-session gardening intervention, physical health parameters such as body composition, physical functional ability, and hand function ability were assessed in both groups. Additionally, psychological health conditions, such as cognitive ability, depression, and sociality, were assessed. The elderly women also answered a questionnaire to assess the amount of physical activity experienced during daily life. Elderly women in the gardening intervention group exhibited significantly improved muscle mass, aerobic endurance, hand dexterity, cognitive ability, and decreased waist circumference (P < 0.05). In contrast, significantly decreased muscle mass and agility and increased depression were observed in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, elderly women in the gardening intervention group reported a significantly higher amount of daily physical activity compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Additionally, 95.8% of elderly women in the gardening intervention group reported of being very satisfied with the gardening intervention. In conclusion, the gardening intervention maintained and improved the physical and psychological health of elderly women at a senior community center, whereas elderly women in the control group experienced age-related reduced physical and psychological health conditions. More studies are needed to evaluate the effects of a gardening intervention in a larger population of elderly women; in addition, a longer intervention period would provide a better measure of health in elderly women.

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim and Wang-Lok Lee

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a gardening intervention as a physical activity in women aged over 70 years. Twenty-one women aged over 70 years were recruited from the community in Seoul, South Korea. Eleven subjects at a senior community center participated in a 15-session gardening program (twice a week, average 50 minutes per session) from Sept. to Nov. 2015. The rest of the subjects who were recruited from another senior community center acted as the control group. Blood lipid profiles, blood pressure, inflammation in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and oxidative stress were assessed by a blood test before and after the 15-session gardening intervention. The results showed that the subjects in the gardening intervention as a low- to moderate-physical activity had a significant improvement in their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and the variables related to immunity such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) for inflammation in blood and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression for oxidative stress. The results of this study suggested that the 15-session gardening intervention as a low- to moderate-physical activity led to positive effects on the blood lipid profiles, blood pressure, level of inflammatory markers in blood, and oxidative stress of women aged over 70 years.

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A-Young Lee, Sin-Ae Park, Hye-Gyeong Park and Ki-Cheol Son

The objective of this study was to assess the physical and psychological effects of an 18-session horticultural therapy (HT) program based on task-oriented training in stroke patients and investigate patient satisfaction. The HT program consisted of horticultural activities including the motions such as reaching–grasping, squatting, stepping, and stooping. A total of 31 stroke inpatients (16 males, 15 females) at B rehabilitation hospital in Seongnam, South Korea, participated in this study. Fourteen stroke patients participated in a thrice weekly HT program (6 weeks, ≈60 minutes per session) between Aug. and Sept. 2016, whereas another 17 stoke patients comprised the control group. At the completion of the 18-session HT program, upper limb function [manual function test (MFT)], grip strength (hydraulic hand dynamometer), pinch force (hydraulic pinch gauge), fine motor skills (9-hole pegboard), balance [Berg Balance Scale (BBS)], and activities of daily living (Modified Barthel Index) were evaluated in both groups. In addition, depression [The Korean version of the short form of Geriatric Depression Scales (SGDS-K)], rehabilitation stress (Rehabilitation Stress Scales), rehabilitation motivation (Rehabilitation Motivation Scales), and fall efficacy (The Korean version of the Falls Efficacy Scale) were evaluated. Stroke patients in the HT group showed significantly improved upper limb function, hand force, balance, fall efficacy, activities of daily living, and decreased depression (P < 0.05). By contrast, no significant change was noted in the control group. In addition, 85.7% of the stroke patients in the HT group reported being very satisfied or satisfied with the HT program. In conclusion, the HT program based on task-oriented training improved the patients’ physical and psychological function after stroke rehabilitation. These study results suggest that implementing an HT program in a rehabilitation hospital will effectively contribute to functional recovery after stroke.