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Huijie Zeng, Yun Li, Jianjun Chen, Xiaoming Wang, Zhongquan Qiao, Yongxin Li, Neng Cai, and Sisi Liu

Lonicera japonica Thunb., commonly referred to as honeysuckle or Jin Yin Hua in Chinese, produces abundant fragrant flowers. Dried flowers and buds of honeysuckles are known as Flos Lonicerae, which has been a famous herb of traditional Chinese medicine for more than 1500 years (Li et al., 2015). Flos Lonicerae have been used to treat arthritis, diabetes mellitus, fever, and viral infections (Li et al., 2015; Shang et al., 2011). A total of 140 chemical compounds have been isolated from Flos Lonicerae ranging from essential oils, organic acids, flavones, saponins, and iridoids (

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Xiaoming Wang, Yongxin Li, Huijie Zeng, Neng Cai, Zhongquan Qiao, Xiangying Wang, and Jianjun Chen

Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC. is a popular flowering shrub adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Efficient methods for micropropagation of this species have not been well developed. The present study established a protocol for in vitro shoot culture of W. florida ‘Tango’ after a systematic evaluation of different culture media, cytokinins, and auxins on axillary shoot induction. Single-node stems were cultured on Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) medium for initial production of axillary shoots. The shoots were used as explants and cultured on DKW medium supplemented with 8.88 μm 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.27 μm naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), resulting in the production of more than six axillary shoots per explant. The axillary shoots could either be used as explants for additional shoot production or be cultured on ½ DKW medium supplemented with 0.25 μm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for rooting. Plantlets were transplanted into a substrate with 99% survival rate in a shaded greenhouse. This established method could be used for rapid propagation of W. florida to speed the introduction of new hybrids or cultivars for commercial production.

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Huijie Zeng, Neng Cai, and Zhongquan Qiao

Dried flowers and buds of Lonicera L., particularly L. japonica Thunb., are known as “Jinyinhua” in Chinese or flos lonicerae, which is one of the most popular herbs of traditional Chinese medicine (Yuan et al., 2012). Flos lonicerae contains essential oils, organic acids, flavones, saponins, and iridoids (Shang et al., 2011). Among them, 5-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid or chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been identified as one of the most active compounds. In vitro assays showed that CGA has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiviral activities (Arion et al., 1997; Hu

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Jianjun Chen, Xiaoming Wang, Neng Cai, Yongxin Li, Huijie Zeng, and Zhongquan Qiao

The genus of Lonicera L., commonly referred to as honeysuckle, has ≈180 species of deciduous or evergreen, bushy, candent, twining, or creeping shrubs distributed in Asia, Europe, and North America (Huxley, 1992). Dried flowers and buds of honeysuckles are known as “Jinyinhua” in Chinese or flos lonicerae, which is one of the most popular herbs of traditional Chinese medicine (Shang et al., 2011). Flos lonicerae contains a series of compounds including essential oils, organic acids, flavones, saponins, and iridoids (Lee et al., 1998; Palacios et al., 2002). Because of the

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Huijie Zeng, Zhongquan Qiao, Yongxin Li, Neng Cai, and Xiangying Wang

Lagerstroemia indica L., commonly referred to as crape myrtle or crepe flower, is an upright, wide-spreading, deciduous shrub or small tree in the loosestrife family Lythraceae. It is native to the Himalayas through southern China, Southeast Asia, and Japan (Huxley, 1992) and has been cultivated as an important flowering ornamental tree for more than 1500 years in China (Chen, 2001). Crape myrtles were introduced into North America in the late 1700s and became naturalized in the United States from Virginia to Arkansas south to Texas and Florida (Byers, 1997; Dirr, 1998;

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Wei Zhou, Xiaoming Wang, Jianhua Chen, Liangming Chen, Zhongquan Qiao, and Huijie Zeng

Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle) is a popular Chinese landscape plant with a long flowering period that contributes to its gorgeous flowers and high ornamental value, which motivate L. indica breeding. We found a wild acarpous individual of L. indica that did not bear seeds after flowering and had a significantly longer flowering period than fructiferous L. indica. This study identified differences in floral organ morphology, and stamen and pistil structure between fructiferous and acarpous L. indica through observation, paraffin sectioning, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The flowering time of each acarpous L. indica inflorescence lasts as long as 18 to 25 days. When a single flower withers, it falls from the pedicel without any fruit. The abortion in the floral organ of acarpous L. indica is characterized by sterile and undehisced anthers, pollen abortion, and deformed and irregularly arranged filament cells. Acarpous L. indica features short and loosely arranged papilla cells in the stigma, a flat style and narrow stylar canal, loosely arranged epidermal cells, and no obvious nuclei. No embryo sac cavity is found in acarpous L. indica ovules. In some nucelli, the egg apparatus structure can be observed indistinctly but without cell contour. In others, the egg apparatus structure is completely absent, and only flocculent tissue is observed. This study may provide a theoretical foundation for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of the mutations in acarpous L. indica.