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  • Author or Editor: Zhijun Zhang x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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The use of resistant rootstocks is an inevitable trend in the development and production of grapes (Vitis sp.). The present study analyzed differences in the metabolites in grape seeds of different rootstock combinations (1103P, 5C, SO4, 3309C, 140R, and control) grafted onto ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (CS) wine grape (Vitis vinifera) scions (control, CS/CS, self-rooted grafting vines) using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nontargeted metabolomic techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal-partial least squares discriminant analysis identified 30 significant metabolites and 22 metabolic pathways in the seeds of CS that differed significantly from the control seeds. This study revealed that rootstocks influence metabolite concentrations and metabolic pathways (alanine–aspartate–glutamate pathway, arginine-proline pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle) in the scion onto which they are grafted. The rootstocks increased the concentration of delphinidin-3-(6-acetylglucoside), peonidin 3-(6-p-coumarylglucoside), L-threonine, and D-tartaric in CS seeds. Appropriate rootstock combinations can be used to improve the quality of grape seeds by changing the concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, polyphenols, and vitamin B. This study provides a theoretical basis for selecting grape rootstocks and provides important insights for improving the quality of commercial products derived from grape seeds.

Open Access

Osmotic adjustments play a fundamental role in plant responses to water deficit. For apple (Malus domestica) trees growing in the primary production areas of China, drought and low phosphorus (P) levels are the main sources of abiotic stress. Although tolerance to drought and low P are important breeding goals for cultivar improvement, there is little information on natural variation within Malus for these traits or the molecular mechanisms that may mediate tolerance. In this study, it was found that in plants grown under conditions of osmotic and low P stress, electrolyte leakage and photosynthetic parameters were significantly higher, but chlorophyll concentrations were lower compared with nonstressed plants. These physiological indicators revealed that, under low P condition, the order of osmotic stress resistance (high to low) was Malus sieversii (Ms) → Malus prunifolia (Mp) → Malus hupehensis (Mh). Expression of the phosphorus transporter genes PHT1;7, PHT1;12, and PHT2;1 in the roots and PHT1;12 and PHT4;5 in the leaves was positively correlated with plant osmotic resistance. It is proposed that the highly expressed PHT genes might improve P absorption and transport efficiency, resulting in the high osmotic stress resistance under low P level conditions in Malus species.

Free access