In vitro rooting of three commercial cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), `Sunland', `Chandler', and `Vina', was examined using a two-phase rooting procedure: root induction in the dark on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 15 μm IBA followed by root development in the light on a mixture of one-quarter strength Driver Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) basal medium and vermiculite (1:1.25, v/v). Rooting percentages were: `Sunland' (94%), `Chandler (55%), and `Vina' (27%). A positive relationship was observed between the vigor of cultivars and rooting ability, but shoot length did not affect rooting success. Rooting was optimum when shoots were cultured on root induction media for 6 to 8 days. Increasing the sucrose level in the root induction medium to 40 g·L-1 improved rooting, and shoots induced to root at 22 °C rooted more readily than those induced at 30 °C. Either increasing or decreasing the nitrogen level in the multiplication medium had a negative effect on rooting. Rooted walnut shoots often cease growth during acclimatization, resulting in shoot rosetting. Spray application of Promalin® (25 mL·L-1) caused buds to break and induced elongation of shoots. Chemical name used: indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Kourosh Vahdati, Charles Leslie, Zabihollah Zamani, and Gale McGranahan
Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani
‘Fuji’ apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh) has gained popularity in the past decades, but poor color of this apple mandates introduction of new strains. To pursue this objective, long-term effects of five ‘Fuji’ apple strains, consisting of ‘Autumn Rose’, ‘Desert Rose’, ‘Myra’, ‘September Wonder’, and ‘Top Export’ on RN 29 rootstock on fruit yield (in 7 years) and harvest time quality attributes (in 6 years) under climate conditions of southwest Idaho were studied during 2004–10. Fruit of ‘September Wonder Fuji’ trees were larger than those of other strains in 5 of 6 years. The type or pattern of peel color among the “low-coloring” and “high-coloring” strains varied widely. Fruits of ‘Autumn Rose Fuji’, ‘Myra Fuji’, and ‘Top Export Fuji’ always had less but ‘September Wonder Fuji’ and ‘Desert Rose Fuji’ had more red color. Fruit of ‘September Wonder Fuji’ had lower firmness but higher starch degradation pattern (SDP) than those of other strains every year as a result of the earlier maturity of this strain. Fruit of ‘Top Export Fuji’ had the lowest SDP among all strains. Fruit of ‘Autumn Rose Fuji’ tended to have lower soluble solids concentration in 3 of 6 years of this study. Considering all yield and quality attributes at harvest, ‘September Wonder’ was a great choice for an early-maturing and ‘Desert Rose’ was suitable for a late-maturing ‘Fuji’ strain. ‘Myra Fuji’ was particularly desirable for its attractive pink color that resembles bagged ‘Fuji’ without the expensive cost of labor associated with bagging.