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  • Author or Editor: Yuxiang Wang x
  • HortTechnology x
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Spirea (Spiraea sp.) plants are commonly used in landscapes in Utah and the intermountain western United States. The relative salt tolerance of seven japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica) cultivars (Galen, Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, SMNSJMFP, Tracy, and Yan) were evaluated in a greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solutions with an EC of 3.0 or 6.0 dS·m−1 once per week for 8 weeks. At 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment, all japanese spirea cultivars irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 still exhibited good or excellent visual quality, with all plants having visual scores of 4 or 5 (0 = dead, 1 = severe foliar salt damage, 2 = moderate foliar salt damage, 3 = slight foliar salt damage, 4 = minimal foliar salt damage, 5 = excellent), except for Tracy and Yan, with only 29% and 64%, respectively, of plants with visual scores less than 3. When irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1, both ‘Tracy’ and ‘Yan’ plants died, and 75% of ‘NCSX2’ plants died. ‘Minspi’ showed severe foliar salt damage, with 32% of plants having a visual score of 1; 25% of plants died. ‘Galen’ and ‘NCSX1’ had slight-to-moderate foliar salt damage, with 25% and 21%, respectively, of plants with visual scores of 2 or less. However, 64% of ‘SMNSJMFP’ plants had good or excellent visual quality, with visual scores more than 4. Saline irrigation water with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 decreased the shoot dry weight of ‘Galen’, ‘Minspi’, ‘SMNSJMFP’, and ‘Yan’ by 27%, 22%, 28%, and 35%, respectively, compared with that of the control. All japanese spirea cultivars had 35% to 56% lower shoot dry weight than the control when they were irrigated with saline irrigation water with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1. The japanese spirea were moderately sensitive to the salinity levels in this experiment. ‘Galen’ and ‘SMNSJMFP’ japanese spirea exhibited less foliar salt damage and reductions in shoot dry weight and were relatively more tolerant to the increased salinity levels tested in this study than the remaining five cultivars (Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, Tracy, and Yan).

Open Access

Screening salinity-tolerant plants is usually time intensive and only applicable to a limited number of salinity levels. A near-continuous gradient dosing (NCGD) system allows researchers to evaluate a large number of plants for salinity tolerance with multiple treatments, more flexibility, and reduced efforts of irrigation. Rose of sharon (Hibiscus syriacus), ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), and japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica) were irrigated using an NCGD system with eight electrical conductivity (EC) levels ranging from 0.9 to 6.5 dS·m–1. At 11 weeks after irrigation was initiated, there were no significant differences among EC levels in terms of visual score, growth index [(Height + Width 1 + Width 2)/3], stem diameter, number of inflorescences, and shoot dry weight (DW) of rose of sharon. However, the root DW, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of rose of sharon decreased linearly as EC levels increased. Ninebark and japanese spirea had increased foliar salt damage with increasing EC levels. The growth index, stem diameter, number of inflorescences, shoot and root DW, SPAD, and Pn of ninebark decreased linearly as EC levels increased. The growth index and SPAD of japanese spirea decreased quadratically with increasing EC levels, but its stem diameter, number of inflorescences, shoot and root DW, and Pn decreased linearly with increasing EC levels. The salinity threshold (50% loss of shoot DW) was 5.4 and 4.6 dS·m–1, respectively, for ninebark and japanese spirea. We were not able to define the salinity threshold for rose of sharon in this study. However, rose of sharon was the most salinity-tolerant species among the three landscape plants.

Open Access