Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Youssef Rouphael x
  • HortScience x
Clear All Modify Search

Zucchini plants (Cucurbita pepo L. cultivar Afrodite) were grown during a summer–fall season in closed-soilless systems using a mixture peat–pumice to evaluate the effects of irrigation system (drip irrigation and subirrigation) and nutrient solution concentration (half = 1 dS·m−1 and full = 2 dS·m−1) in terms of substrate electrical conductivity (ECs) using the dilution 1:1.5 media:water method, growth, yield, leaf mineral composition, fruit quality, and mineral solution composition. At the end of the cultural cycle, the highest ECs at the upper (0 to 7.5 cm) and lower (7.5 to 15.0 cm) layers were recorded with subirrigation using a full nutrient solution concentration. The highest plant growth, yield, and leaf macroelements concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) were recorded in both irrigation systems using a full-strength solution, followed by drip irrigation, and finally by subirrigation treatment using a half-strength nutrient solution. Fruit yield, fruit mineral composition (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium), and leaf macroelements concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) were substantially reduced when the concentrations of macronutrients in the feed solution were lowered to 50% of control. Using half-nutrient solution concentration, the marketable yield reduction was more pronounced with subirrigation (58%) than with drip irrigation (42%). The variation of the macronutrient and EC in the solution during the growing cycle was less pronounced in the subirrigation than with the drip irrigation system, which represents an important aspect for the simplification of the closed-loop management of the nutrient solution.

Free access

Limited water supply in the Mediterranean region is a major problem in irrigated agriculture. Grafting may enhance drought resistance, plant water use efficiency, and plant growth. An experiment was conducted in two consecutive growing seasons to determine yield, plant growth, fruit quality, leaf gas exchange, water relations, macroelements content in fruits and leaves, and water use efficiency of mini-watermelon plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai cv. Ingrid], either ungrafted or grafted onto the commercial rootstock ‘PS 1313’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), under open field conditions. Irrigation treatments were 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 evapotranspiration rates. In both years (2006 and 2007), marketable yield decreased linearly in response to an increase in water stress. When averaged over year and irrigation rate, the total and marketable yields were higher by 115% and 61% in grafted than in ungrafted plants, respectively. The fruit quality parameters of grafted mini-watermelons such as fruit dry matter and total soluble solids content were similar in comparison with those of ungrafted plants, whereas titratable acidity, K, and Mg concentrations improved significantly. In both grafting combinations, yield water use efficiency (WUEy) increased under water stress conditions with higher WUE values recorded in grafted than ungrafted plants. The concentration of N, K, and Mg in leaves was higher by 7.4%, 25.6%, and 38.8%, respectively, in grafted than in ungrafted plants. The net assimilation of CO2, stomatal conductance, relative water content, leaf, and osmotic potential decreased under water stress conditions. The sensitivity to water stress was similar between grafted and ungrafted plants, and the higher marketable yield from grafted plants was mainly the result of an improvement in nutritional status and higher CO2 assimilation and water uptake from the soil.

Free access

The current research aimed 1) at evaluating the effects of three biostimulants (legume-derived protein hydrolysate, PH; plant and seaweed extract, PE and SWE) on yield performance and nutritional quality, mineral profiling, antioxidant activities, lycopene, total phenols and ascorbic acid of greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under soil culture and 2) to assess the economic profitability of biostimulant applications. Plants were sprayed four times during the growing cycle with a solution containing 1, 3, and 3 mL·L−1 of PE, SWE, and PH, respectively. Foliar applications of biostimulants improved the early and total marketable yield of fresh tomato. The increase of total yield by PE, SWE, and PH was 11.7%, 6.6% and 7.0%, respectively, in comparison with untreated plants. Legume-derived PH increased lycopene, total soluble solids, and K and Mg contents, thereby increasing the nutritional value of the fruits. The applications of SWE, and to a lesser degree PH, enhanced the Ca concentration in the fruit tissue. Our findings indicated that the three tested biostimulants, although they increased the total production cost, improved the nutrient status and yield performance of the crop to a level resulting in net economic benefits.

Free access

The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some potted plants such as ornamental cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) are frequently higher than the actual demand. Optimization of N fertilization rate and selecting N-efficient cultivars are important approaches to increase the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and to reduce environmental pollution from nitrate leaching. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing levels of nitrate (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mm of NO3 ) in the nutrient solution on plant growth, quality, soil plant analysis development (SPAD) index, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigments, mineral composition, and NUE in five ornamental cabbage cultivars (Coral Prince, Coral Queen, Glamour Red, Northern Lights Red, and White Peacock), grown in closed subirrigation system. ‘Glamour Red’ and ‘Northern Lights Red’ needed 3.3 and 2.9 mm of NO3 in the supplied nutrient solution, respectively, to produce 50% of predicted maximum shoot dry weight (SDW), whereas the vigorous cultivars Coral Prince, Coral Queen, and White Peacock needed 5.5, 4.7, and 4.3 mm of NO3 , respectively. Total leaf area (LA), SDW, SPAD index, N, Ca, and Mg concentrations increased linearly and quadratically in response to an increase of the nitrate concentration in the nutrient solution. Irrespective of cultivars, fertilizing above 10 mm NO3 produced high-quality plants (quality index of 5) and resulted in sufficiently high tissue concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe.

Free access

A greenhouse experiment was conducted in Summer and Fall 2011 at the experimental farm of Tuscia University, central Italy, to study the effect of nutrient solution concentration (4, 20, 36, 52, or 68 mequiv·L−1) on biomass production, mineral composition, and concentrations of the major polyphenols in ‘Romolo’ artichoke and ‘Bianco Avorio’ cardoon grown in a floating system. Leaf dry biomass, leaf number, and macroelement concentrations (nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) of artichoke and cardoon increased in response to an increase in the nutrient solution concentration, whereas an opposite trend was observed for the total polyphenols, phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, cynarin, and caffeic acid), and the flavonoid luteolin. Artichoke and cardoon gave maximum biomass production and leaf number at 45 and 54 mequiv·L−1, respectively. Cardoon showed higher biomass and leaf number (average 1.13 kg·m−2 and 14.0 n./plant, respectively) than those observed in artichoke (average 1.07 kg·m−2 and 12.7 n./plant, respectively). The chlorogenic acid, cynarin, caffeic acid, and luteolin concentrations were higher by 204%, 462%, 580%, and 445% in cardoon leaf tissue than in that of artichoke. An improvement of leaf quality (total polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) was obtained at the expense of leaf yield through the use of lower fertilizer concentrations in the nutrient solution.

Free access

Identification of rootstocks capable of improving the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the scion could reduce N fertilization and nitrate leaching; however, screening different graft combinations under field conditions can be costly and time-consuming. This study evaluated a rapid and economical methodology for screening of melon rootstocks for NUE. Two experiments were designed. In the first, melon plants (Cucumis melo L. cv. Proteo) either ungrafted or grafted onto four commercial rootstocks: ‘Dinero’ and ‘Jador’ (Cucumis melo L.), ‘P360’, and ‘PS1313’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) grown in hydroponics were compared in terms of shoot dry biomass, leaf area, root-to-shoot ratio, SPAD index, shoot N uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) activity at the early developmental stage in response to nitrate availability (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, or 15 mm of NO3 ). The second experiment was aimed to confirm whether the use of a selected rootstock with high NUE (‘P360’) could improve crop performance and NUE of grafted melon plants under field conditions. In the first experiment, carried out under greenhouse conditions, melon plants grafted onto ‘Dinero’, ‘Jador’, and ‘P360’ rootstocks needed 5.7, 5.2, and 6.1 mm of NO3 , respectively, to reach half-maximum shoot dry weight, whereas plants grafted onto ‘PS1313’ rootstock and the control treatment (ungrafted plants) needed 9.1 and 13.1 mm of NO3 , respectively. Total leaf area, SPAD index, and shoot N uptake increased linearly and quadratically in response to an increase of the N concentration in the nutrient solution. At 2.5 mm of NO3 , melon plants grafted onto both C. melo and Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata rootstocks had the highest NR activity, whereas no significant difference was observed at 10 mm of NO3 . In the second experiment, carried out under open field conditions, increasing the N fertilization rates from 0 to 120 kg·ha−1 increased the total and marketable yields of melon plants, whereas the NUE decreased. When averaged over N levels, the marketable yield, NUE, and N uptake efficiency were higher by 9%, 11.8%, and 16.3%, respectively, in ‘Proteo’ grafted onto ‘P360’ than in ungrafted ‘Proteo’ plants.

Free access

Bougainvillea is widely used as flowering shrub in gardening and landscaping in the Mediterranean region characterized by limited water supply. The evaluation of deficit irrigation as a possible technique to improve water productivity and selection of genotypes that can better withstand soil water deficits are essential for sustainable production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of deficit irrigation on three potted Bougainvillea genotypes [B. glabra var. Sanderiana, B. ×buttiana ‘Rosenka’, B. ‘Lindleyana’ (=B. ‘Aurantiaca’)] grown in two shapes, globe and pyramid, on agronomical and physiological parameters. Irrigation treatments were based on the daily water use (100%, 50%, or 25%). The shoot, total dry biomass, leaf number, leaf area, and macronutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] concentration decreased in response to an increase in water stress with the lowest values recorded in the severe deficit irrigation (SDI) treatment. At 160 days after transplanting (DAT), the percentage of total dry biomass reduction caused by irrigation level was lower in B. ×buttiana ‘Rosenka’ compared with B. glabra var. Sanderiana and B. ‘Lindleyana’ (=B. ‘Aurantiaca’). At 160 DAT, the flower index increased in response to an increase in water stress with the highest values recorded under both moderate deficit irrigation (MDI) and SDI for B. ×buttiana ‘Rosenka’. The biomass water use efficiency (WUE) increased under water stress conditions with the highest values recorded in B. glabra var. Sanderiana and B. ×buttiana ‘Rosenka’ grown under MDI (average 1.43 and 1.25 g·L−1, respectively) and especially with SDI (average 1.68 and 1.36 g·L−1, respectively). A number of tolerance mechanisms such as increase in stomatal resistance, decrease in leaf water potential, and decrease in leaf osmotic potential have been observed, especially under SDI. The MDI treatment can be used successfully in Bougainvillea to reduce water consumption while improving the overall quality and WUE, whereas the genotypes B. glabra var. Sanderiana and B. ×buttiana ‘Rosenka’ could be considered suitable for pot plant production.

Free access

Implementing nutrient management strategies in soilless culture, which improve water use efficiency (WUE) and limit the loss of eutrophying elements without affecting crop performance, is a priority for the floriculture industry. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of two nutrient management strategies, based on electrical conductivity (EC) or nitrate-nitrogen (N-NO3 ) concentration control on plant growth, ornamental quality, plant–water relations, mineral composition, and WUE of greenhouse Hippeastrum grown in semiclosed soilless system. The recirculating nutrient solution was discharged whenever a threshold EC value of 3.0 dS·m−1 was reached (EC-based strategy), or when N-NO3 concentration decreased below the limit of 1.0 mol·m−3 (nitrate-based strategy). There were no significant differences in terms of plant growth parameters, stomatal resistance, leaf water relations, and macronutrient composition in plant tissues between the two nutrient management strategies. In the EC- and the nitrate-based strategies, the recirculating nutrient solution was flushed 10 and 5 times, respectively. The water loss (W L) and the total water use (W use) in the EC-based strategy were significantly higher by 261.1% and 61.5%, respectively, compared with the N-NO3 -based strategy. In contrast with the EC-based strategy, the adoption of the N-NO3 -based strategy significantly minimized the nitrate, phosphate, and potassium emissions to the environment. The effective WUE of the system (WUES) recorded in the N-NO3 -based strategy was higher by 55.9% compared with the one recorded with the EC-based strategy.

Free access

Three greenhouse experiments were carried out to compare the responses of Aloe arborescens and Aloe barbadensis with organic fertilization (standard or reduced fertilization level), arbuscular mycorrhiza [with AM (+AM) or without AM (–AM)], and salinity (1 or 80 mm NaCl) in terms of plant growth, leaf yield, mineral composition, and nutraceutical value. In all experiments, the yield of fresh leaves was significantly higher by 320%, 252%, and 72%, respectively, in A. barbadensis in comparison with A. arborescens. Doubling the fertilizer dose, plant growth parameters increased, but the bioactive compounds were negatively affected. The highest antioxidant activity was recorded with A. barbadensis using both fertilization regimes, whereas the highest values of anthraquinones aloin were observed in A. barbadensis using a reduced fertilization regime and when plants were inoculated with AM fungi. β-polysaccharide concentration was significantly higher in A. barbadensis in comparison with A. arborescens and was increased by 33% when plants were inoculated with AM fungi. In both Aloe species, increasing the salinity decreased the leaf fresh weight and total dry biomass but increased the aloin and β-polysaccharides content by 66% and 21%, respectively. The results suggest that cultural practices such as organic fertilization, inoculation with AM fungi, and irrigation with saline water can represent effective tools to achieve a more favorable phytochemical profile.

Free access

Grafting represents an effective tool for controlling the race 1,2 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) and Didymella bryoniae in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Although not considered a soilborne pathogen, D. bryoniae survives on plant remains in the soil. The lack of effective resistant commercial hybrids and the gradual reduced use of soil fumigation with methyl bromide increase the risk of damages by both these pathogens. We determined the effectiveness of eight commercial rootstocks, ‘RS 841’, ‘P 360’, ‘ES 99-13’, ‘Elsi’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), and ‘Belimo’, ‘Energia’, ‘Griffin’, ‘ES liscio’ (Cucumis melo genotypes), for their resistance to FOM and D. bryoniae. During 2003 and 2004 growing seasons, the inodorus F1 hybrid Incas was grafted onto each of these commercial rootstocks and then evaluated, under greenhouse conditions, in terms of productivity and fruit quality. Cucurbita rootstocks (‘RS 841’, ‘P 360’, ‘ES 99-13’, ‘Elsi’) were highly resistant both to the race 1,2 of FOM (100% survival) and to D. bryoniae (almost absent crown lesions and low leaf disease index); this reaction clearly differed from that of both the C. melo rootstocks (‘Belimo’, ‘Energia’, ‘Griffin’, ‘ES liscio’) and the control Incas. In both years, the highest yield was recorded in the graft combination Incas/‘RS 841’ with 5.6 and 8.1 kg·m−2 during 2003 and 2004, respectively. The Cucurbita rootstock ‘RS 841’ produced yields higher than C. melo rootstocks (‘Belimo’, ‘Energia’, ‘Griffin’, ‘ES liscio’) and the control Incas. Fruit dry matter, titratable acidity, total soluble solid contents, fruit firmness, and Hunter color [L* (brightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) parameters] of grafted melons were similar to those of the plants grown on their own roots.

Free access