Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Yang Li x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Clear All Modify Search

Our goal was to determine the ultrastructure features and the dynamic changes in polysaccharides and neutral lipids in developing anthers of rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina), and to better understand the mechanisms controlling male reproductive development. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used to study the ultrastructural characteristics of the anthers, and histochemical methods were used to determine levels of polysaccharides and lipids. The cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis was simultaneous type, and microspore tetrads were mainly tetrahedral. The pollen exine began to form at the tetrad stage. The mature pollen grains were oval-shaped and bicellular. Accumulation of reserve substances began at the late microsporogenesis stage, and an abundance of starch grains and lipids were stored in pollen grains at anthesis. Polysaccharides and lipids changed in different stages and played an important role in anther development. Moreover, the calcium oxalate crystals may protect the pollen and suggest that calcium distribution is related to anther development.

Free access

The ability of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal `Elliott' highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plants to acquire soil N under different preplant organic soil amendment regimes (forest litter, rotted sawdust, or no amendment) was investigated in a field experiment using 15N labeled (NH4)2SO4. Plants inoculated with an ericoid mycorrhizal isolate, Oidiodendron maius Dalpé (UAMH 9263), had lower leaf 15N enrichment and higher leaf N contents than noninoculated plants but similar leaf N concentrations, indicating mycorrhizal plants absorbed more nonlabeled soil N than nonmycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants produced more plant dry weight (DW) and larger canopy volumes. The effect of preplant organic amendments on the growth of highbush blueberry plants was clearly demonstrated. Plants grown in soil amended with forest litter produced higher DW than those in either the rotted sawdust amendment or no amendment. Plants grown in soils amended preplant with sawdust, the current commercial recommendation, were the smallest. Differences in the carbon to nitrogen ratio were likely responsible for growth differences among plants treated with different soil amendments.

Free access

Cold stress is a major factor limiting the growth of warm-season turfgrass species. Cold tolerance in warm-season turfgrass species could be improved through in vitro selection for somaclonal variations. The objectives of this study were to establish an effective in vitro culture protocol for generating plants from calli using mature seeds of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) and to determine whether in vitro cold selection of somaclonal variations would lead to improved cold tolerance in seashore paspalum. The optimal concentrations of supplemental compounds in the culture medium for callus induction, embryogenic callus formation, and plant regeneration were determined. The supplemental compounds included 2,4–dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), kinetin (KT), naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA), CuSO4, and acidic hydrolysis casein (AHC). The highest rates of callus induction (97.50%), embryogenic callus formation (66.88%), and regeneration (55.94%) were obtained with the supplemental compounds of 3.0 mg·L−1 2,4-D and 10.0 mg·L−1 CuSO4 for callus induction; with 3.0 mg·L−1 2,4-D, 15 mg·L−1 CuSO4, and 1.0 g·L−1 AHC for embryogenic callus formation; and with 8.0 mg·L−1 6-BA, 0.2 mg·L−1 KT, 0.5 mg·L−1 NAA, and 10 mg·L−1 CuSO4 for plant regeneration. Embryogenic calli were subjected to 2 or 6 °C treatment for 90 days for in vitro cold selection of somaclonal variation. Plants regenerated from calli surviving cold treatment (cold-selected) for 45 or 60 days were then exposed to low temperatures [15/10 or 5/3 °C (day/night)]. Plant variants derived from cold-selected calli exhibited significant improvement in their tolerance to low temperature of either 15/10 or 5/3 °C (day/night), as manifested by higher turf quality, leaf chlorophyll content, and membrane stability as well as lower levels of lipid peroxidation compared with the control plants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of in vitro selection for cold tolerance in seashore paspalum. The cold-tolerant variants could be useful germplasm for breeding programs and further molecular characterization of cold tolerance mechanisms.

Free access

NAC transcription factors have been characterized in numerous plants, and the NAC gene has been shown to be involved not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant responses to abiotic and biological stresses, such as drought, high salinity, low temperature, and anaerobic/hypoxic stress. Creating an environment of anaerobic/hypoxic stress has been shown to be one of the effective storage methods for delaying the browning of fresh-cut lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root. However, whether NAC is associated with lotus root browning under anaerobic stress has not been studied. In this study, vacuum packaging (VP; anaerobic/hypoxic stress) effectively delayed the browning of fresh-cut lotus root. The changes in the expressions of NnPAL1, NnPPOA, and NnPOD2/3 were consistent with phenylalanine aminolase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) enzyme activity changes and lotus root browning. Using RNA sequencing, five NnNAC genes were isolated and studied. Transcriptional analysis indicates that the NnNAC genes showed different responses to VP. The expressions of NnNAC1/4 were inhibited by VP, which was consistent with the observed change in the degree of fresh-cut lotus root browning. However, NnNAC2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were upregulated, and the expressions of NnNAC3/5 showed no clear differences under different packaging scenarios. Thus, NnNAC1/4 were identified as promising candidates for further transcriptional regulation analysis in lotus root to understand more fully the molecular mechanism of browning under anaerobic/anoxic stress.

Open Access

Leaves of Begonia semperflorens accumulate anthocyanins and turn red under low temperature (LT). In the present work, LT increased H2O2 content and superoxide anions production rate, causing significant increases in the activities of enzymes and contents of reduced components involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AsA-GSH cycle). As a result, LT-exposed seedlings increased the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, and accumulated anthocyanin. Based on LT condition, application of N,N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU) decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and unbalanced the AsA-GSH-controlled redox homeostasis. As a result, seedlings in the LT + DMTU group did not accumulate anthocyanin. Our results suggest that ROS may act as an important inducer in LT-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis.

Free access

The stolon is the main asexual reproductive organ of the medicinal plant Tulipa edulis and has special morphology. In the greenhouse experiment presented herein, the dynamic changes in carbohydrates and related enzymes, proteins, and endogenous hormones of stolons during T. edulis stolon formation were investigated. The results showed that the content of total soluble sugar, sucrose, reducing sugar, fructose, and starch were all significantly enhanced in the middle period when stolon emerged and maintained at relatively high levels until the later period of stolon formation, while protein content decreased during stolon formation. The activities of amylase (AMY), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SS) peaked in the initial period and were negatively correlated with soluble sugars. However, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity increased as stolon formation progressed, and the changes in soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) activities presented a single peak, reaching their maximums in the middle period. AGPase, SSS, and GBSS activities were all positively related to starch content. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) verified the changes in SS and SSS activities via the expression levels of the SS, SSSI, and SSSII genes. The gibberellin (GA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) content attained their maximum in the initial period of stolon formation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) remained at high levels during the initial and middle period and decreased significantly during the later period of stolon formation, inversely to the ratio of ABA:IAA. Analysis of the physiological changes in T. edulis stolon indicated that the accumulation of soluble sugars and starch via various enzymes, a high level of IAA and a low ABA to IAA ratio mainly contributed to stolon development of T. edulis. This paper explored carbohydrate levels and endogenous hormones profiles during stolon formation, which provided the theory basis for further regulating stolon growth of T. edulis.

Free access

Heat tolerance is considered to be an essential feature for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production, and it has been suggested that higher antioxidant ability could prevent the oxidative damage in plants caused by high-temperature stress. We aimed to investigate whether the application of exogenous spermidine (Spd) increases antioxidant activities and, therefore, elevates the heat tolerance of cucumber. Cucumber seedlings (cv. Jinchun No. 4) showing moderate heat tolerance were grown in climate chambers to investigate the effects of exogenous Spd (1 mm) foliar spray treatment on the activities and isozyme levels of antioxidative enzymes under both high-temperature stress 42/32 °C (day/night) and normal temperature 28/18 °C (day/night). On high-temperature stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were significantly reduced; the catalase activity was initially lower and then increased, whereas the peroxidase activity was initially higher and then decreased. The levels of these isozymes also changed differently. On treatment with exogenous Spd, the activities of these antioxidant enzymes were noticeably enhanced, and the isozyme zymogram expression had some changes. It was concluded that foliar spray with Spd effectively improved the total antioxidant ability of cucumber seedlings and, therefore, enhanced the tolerance of the plants to high-temperature stress.

Free access

Monoterpenoid metabolism and aroma compounds are influenced by genetic characteristics. Linalool, α-terpineol, nerol, and geraniol are primary monoterpenoids that have previously been studied in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries. Previous studies were restricted by the lack of relevant studies investigating population structure and the regulatory mechanism underlying monoterpenoid synthesis. In this study, a total of 1133 alleles were amplified, with each locus having on average 6.06 alleles. We also assessed the genetic variability among the genotypes based on 187 microsatellite primer pairs amplified in 96 grape genotypes. The results of the phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the grapevine accessions grouped into five genetic clusters that largely coincided with the recognized species classification and the result of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The molecular characterization of these accessions provides insight into genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in grapevines. A total of 51 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected that were significantly associated with linalool, α-terpineol, nerol, and geraniol. We found that Deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) was located in the region UDV060 on linkage group (LG) 5, whereas Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) and Hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) were located in the VLG19-I-1 and VLG3-A-1 regions, respectively. These novel QTLs will potentially assist in the screening of aroma compounds in grapevines.

Free access

Sugar and organic acid contents as well as sugar-to-acid ratio of fruit are important factors affecting fruit quality and processing. In this study, we compared sugar and organic acid contents of Vaccinium uliginosum (bog bilberry) fruit harvested from 100 plants across 10 wild populations growing in the Changbai Mountains of China. Correlation of sugar and acid contents with the spatial distribution of these populations was accessed. Germplasm with high sugar and low acid with potential for use in future breeding was also identified. Results showed that sugar and organic acid contents varied among different V. uliginosum populations in the Changbai Mountains. Fructose (18.60–38.54 mg·g−1) and glucose (15.77–35.08 mg·g−1) were the main sugars, whereas quinic (16.06–20.97 mg·g−1), citric (10.39–14.96 mg·g−1), and malic (4.28–7.47 mg·g−1) acids were the main organic acids in V. uliginosum. The first population collected in the Dongfanghong forest farm (lat. 42°00′N, long. 128°03′E) showed the highest average sugar content and sugar-to-acid ratio among the sampled populations. Moreover, total sugar content and sugar-to-acid ratio of Sample 7—Population 1, which is located at Manjiang forest farm (lat. 41°09′N, long. 127°05′E) was much higher than the other 99 samples, making this sample representative of important germplasm for breeding. Altitude and latitude were important environmental factors affecting sugar and organic acid contents. Fructose, glucose, and total sugar contents were positively correlated with altitude and negatively correlated with latitude. Oxalic acid content and sugar-to-acid ratio were positively correlated with altitude, and there was no significant correlation between organic acid contents and latitude.

Free access

GA20-oxidase (GA20-ox) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA). To investigate its role in plant growth and development, we suppressed MdGA20-ox gene expression in apple (Malus domestica cv. Hanfu) plants by RNA interference (RNAi). After 20 weeks of growth in the greenhouse, significant phenotype differences were observed between transgenic lines and the nontransgenic control. Suppression of MdGA20-ox gene expression resulted in lower plant height, shorter internode length, and higher number of nodes compared with the nontransgenic control. The expression of MdGA20-ox in transgenic plants was significantly suppressed, and the active GA content in transgenic lines was lower than that in the nontransgenic control. These results demonstrated that the MdGA20-ox gene plays an important role in vegetative growth, and therefore it is possible to develop dwarfed or compact scion apple cultivars by MdGA20-ox gene silencing.

Free access