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  • Author or Editor: Xunzhong Zhang x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity is closely associated with stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stoloniferous L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw (syn. A. palustris Huds.)]. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of two plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the endogenous antioxidant SOD level and photochemical activity in `Penncross' creeping bentgrass grown under two fertilizer regimes. Mature `Penncross' was treated monthly with TE at 0.44 g a.i./100 m2 and PPC at 3.37 g a.i./100 m2 from May through November at the Virginia Tech Turfgrass Research Center, Blacksburg, Va. Foliar application of TE and PPC increased SOD activity, photochemical activity, and Fm730/Fm690 ratio of creeping bentgrass under the two fertilization regimes as well as when the grass was exposed to a low soil moisture environment. TE reduced clipping weight consistently regardless of the fertilization regime. In contrast, PPC increased clipping weight slightly. Both TE and PPC significantly reduced Dollar spot disease (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Bennett) under both high and low fertilization regimes. No significant fertilization × PGR interactions for SOD, photochemical activity of PS II, and Fm730/Fm690 were observed in well-watered or drought stressed bentgrass. Improvement in stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass by the PGRs appears to be associated partially with an increase of endogenous SOD activity. Chemical names used: trinexapac-ethyl (TE); propiconazole (PPC).

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Drought stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and development. The mechanism of drought tolerance has not been well understood. This study was designed to investigate proline and antioxidant metabolism associated with drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing the OjERF gene relative to wild-type (WT) plants. The OjERF gene was isolated from mondo grass (Ophiopogon japonicus). The OjERF gene, driven by the CaMV35S promoter, was introduced into tobacco through agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)-mediated transformation. Five transgenic lines were regenerated, of which transgenic Line 5 (GT5) and Line 6 (GT6) were used to examine drought tolerance in comparison with WT plants in a growth chamber. Drought stress caused an increase in leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL), proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in both transgenic lines and WT plants. However, the transgenic lines had lower MDA content and EL and higher proline content, SOD and CAT activity relative to WT under drought stress. The activities of SOD and CAT were also greater in the transgenic lines relative to WT plants under well-watered conditions (Day 0). The OjERF activated the expression of stress-relative genes, including NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtERF5, NtSOD, and NtCAT1 in tobacco plants. The results of this study suggest that the OjERF gene may confer drought stress tolerance through upregulating proline and antioxidant metabolism.

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Ultraviolet-B [UV-B (280-320 nm)] radiation is one of the major factors causing quality decline of transplanted sod. Pigments and antioxidants are associated with plant stress resistance, but their roles in turfgrass tolerance to UV-B damage are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to determine if kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars with darker green genetic leaf color possessed greater pigment and antioxidant defense capacities and if such characteristics were associated with greater resistance to UV-B. Two cultivars, `Moonlight' (dark green) and `Limerick' (light green), were selected and subjected to continuous, artificial UV-B radiation (70 μmol·m-2·s-1). UV-B irradiation reduced turf quality by 58% (`Moonlight') and 77% (`Limerick') relative to day 1 when measured 10 days after initiation of UV-B exposure. Higher canopy photochemical efficiency (PEc) was found in `Moonlight' relative to `Limerick' under UV-B stress and during recovery. `Moonlight' contained greater levels of chlorophyll (1.5 to1.6-fold), carotenoids (1.3-fold), superoxide dismutase [SOD (1.0-fold)] and catalase [CAT (1.5-fold)] than `Limerick' when measured at 10 days after UV-B initiation. Turfgrass quality and PEc were positively correlated with pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), and negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that selecting dark-green cultivars with greater pigment content and antioxidant activity may be an effective approach for turfgrass breeders and sod producers to improve tolerance of newly transplanted sod to environments with higher UV-B radiation.

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A variety of organic materials such as humic substances, seaweed extracts (SWE), organic matter, and amino acids are being used as fertilizer supplements in commercial turfgrass management. Among them, SWE and humic acid (HA) are widely used in various biostimulant product formulations. These compounds have been reported to contain phytohormones and osmoprotectants such as cytokinins, auxins, polyamines, and betaines. Manufacturer claims are that these products may supplement standard fertility programs by reducing mineral nutrient requirements while improving stress tolerance. There is a lack of season-long, field-based evidence to support these claims. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of monthly field applications of SWE, HA, and high and low seasonal fertilization regimes on the physiological health of fairway-height creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Plots were treated monthly with SWE at 16 mg·m-2 and HA (70% a.i.) at 38 mg·m-2 alone, or in combination, and were grown under low (20 kg·ha-1/month) or high nitrogen (50 kg·ha-1/month) fertilization regimes during 1996 and 1997. Endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, photochemical activity (PA), and turf quality were measured in July of each year. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased by 46% to 181%, accompanied by a PA increase of 9% to 18%, and improved visual quality of bentgrass in both years. There was no significant fertilization × supplement interaction. Although not part of our original objectives, it was noted that significantly less dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett) disease incidence occurred in supplement-treated bentgrass. Our results indicate that increased SOD activity in July due to SWE and/or HA applications improved overall physiological health, irrespective of fertilization regime. This suggests that these compounds may be beneficial supplements for reducing standard fertilizer and fungicide inputs, while maintaining adequate creeping bentgrass health.

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Salinity stress may involve the accumulation of glycine betaine (GB). The objective of this study was to examine whether exogenous GB would ameliorate the detrimental effect of salinity stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The grass was subjected to two salinity levels (0 and 250 mm NaCl) and three GB levels (0, 20, and 50 mm). Salinity resulted in a remarkable decrease in vertical shoot growth rate (VSGR), shoot and root fresh weight, relative water content (RWC), relative transpiration rate (Tr), and chlorophyll (Chl) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Plants subjected to salt exhibited an increase in leaf electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation (MDA), and proline content. Application of GB reduced EL, MDA, and proline content in salt-stressed plants. Perennial ryegrass subjected to salt stress plus GB had a greater level of VSGR, RWC, relative Tr, Chl content, and activities of SOD, CAT, and APX when compared with salt-stressed without GB. Salt stress increased Na+ and decreased K+ content, which resulted in a higher Na+/K+ ratio in perennial ryegrass. Application of 20 mm GB suppressed Na+ accumulation, whereas the K+ content was significantly increased in shoot, which led to a higher K+/Na+ ratio under saline conditions. These results suggested that GB-enhanced salt tolerance in perennial ryegrass was mainly related to the elevated SOD, CAT, and APX activity and alleviation of cell membrane damage by reducing oxidation of membrane lipid and improving the ion homeostasis under salt stress.

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Heat stress is a major limiting factor for growth of cool-season perennial grass species, and mechanisms of heat tolerance have not been well understood. This study was designed to investigate antioxidant enzyme and hormone metabolism responses to heat stress in two kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars contrasting in heat tolerance. The plants were subjected to 20/20 °C [day/night (control)] or 38/30 °C [day/night (heat stress)] for 28 days in growth chambers. Heat stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with heat-tolerant cultivar EverGlade exhibiting lower levels of EL and MDA relative to heat-sensitive cultivar Kenblue under heat stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity increased and then declined during 28 days of heat stress. Peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity declined and then increased during heat stress. ‘EverGlade’ had greater activities of SOD, CAT, POD, and APX relative to ‘Kenblue’ under heat stress. In addition, ‘EverGlade’ had two additional SOD isozymes and three additional POD isozymes relative to ‘Kenblue’ under heat stress. Leaf abscisic acid (ABA) increased in response to heat stress. Leaf indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased and then declined during heat stress. ‘OverGlade’ had higher ABA and IAA content relative to ‘Kenblue’. At the end of heat stress, leaf IAA and ABA content were 27.8% and 73% higher in ‘EverGlade’ relative to ‘Kenblue’, respectively. The results indicated that antioxidant enzymes and the hormones (ABA and IAA) were associated with kentucky bluegrass heat tolerance. Selection and use of cultivars with higher IAA and ABA content and greater antioxidant enzyme activities may improve kentucky bluegrass growth and quality under heat stress.

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Soil water deficit impacts cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), but the mechanisms underlying have not been well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation before and during cold acclimation on osmoprotectants, antioxidant metabolism, and freezing tolerance in creeping bentgrass. The grass was subjected to three-soil moisture levels: well-watered [100% container capacity (CC)], deficit irrigation induced-mild drought stress (60% CC), and severe drought stress (30% CC) for 35 days including 14 days at 24/20 °C (day/night) and then 21 days under cold acclimation treatment (2 °C) in growth chambers. Leaf proline and total soluble sugar (TSS) levels were higher in the grass under mild drought stress relative to that under severe drought stress. Superoxide (O2 −·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in the grass under severe drought relative to that under well-watered and mild drought stress at day 35. Mild drought stress increased catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity, induced new isoforms and increased band intensities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, and POD during cold acclimation (days 14 to 35). No differences in osmoprotectants, antioxidant metabolism, and freezing tolerance were found between mild drought and well-watered treatments. The results of this study suggest deficit irrigation-induced mild drought stress in late fall and winter could induce accumulation of osmoprotectants and improve antioxidant metabolism, and freezing tolerance, but severe drought stress could reduce freezing tolerance of creeping bentgrass in the region with limited precipitation.

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Water deficit is a major limiting factor for grass culture in many regions with physiological mechanisms of tolerance not yet well understood. Antioxidant isozymes and hormones may play important roles in plant tolerance to water deficit. This study was designed to investigate antioxidant enzymes, isozymes, abscisic acid (ABA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) responses to deficit irrigation in two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars contrasting in drought tolerance. The plants were subjected to well-watered {100% container capacity, 34.4% ± 0.21% volumetric moisture content (VWC), or deficit irrigation [30% evapotranspiration (ET) replacement; 28.6% ± 0.15% to 7.5% ± 0.12% VWC]} conditions for up to 8 days and rewatering for 4 days for recovery in growth chambers. Deficit irrigation increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content in both cultivars, but drought-tolerant Manhattan-5 exhibited lower levels relative to drought-sensitive Silver Dollar. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity declined and then increased during water-deficit treatment. ‘Manhattan-5’ had higher SOD activity and greater abundance of SOD1 isozyme than ‘Silver Dollar’ under water deficit. Deficit irrigation increased catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in ‘Manhattan-5’, but not in ‘Silver Dollar’. ‘Manhattan-5’ had higher CAT, APX, and peroxidase (POD) activity than ‘Silver Dollar’ during water limitation. Deficit irrigation increased mRNA accumulation of cytosolic cupper/zinc SOD (Cyt Cu/Zn SOD), whereas gene expression of manganese SOD (Mn SOD) and peroxisome APX (pAPX) were not significantly altered in response to deficit irrigation. No differences in Cyt Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, and pAPX gene expression were found between the two cultivars under deficit irrigation. Water limitation increased leaf ABA and IAA contents in both cultivars, with Silver Dollar having a higher ABA content than Manhattan-5. Change in ABA level may regulate stomatal opening and oxidative stress, which may trigger antioxidant defense responses. These results indicate that accumulation of antioxidant enzymes and ABA are associated with perennial ryegrass drought tolerance. Activity and isozyme assays of key antioxidant enzymes under soil moisture limitation can be a practical screening approach to improve perennial ryegrass drought tolerance and quality.

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