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  • Author or Editor: Xunzhong Zhang x
  • HortTechnology x
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Ethephon [ETH (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene-releasing compound)] has been used as a plant growth regulator in turfgrass management. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of ETH seed treatment on drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) seedlings. Seeds of two kentucky bluegrass cultivars, Midnight and Nuglade, were exposed to ETH treatment or untreated as controls. Seedlings were then exposed to two water regimes: well-watered conditions and polyethylene glycol (PEG)–induced drought conditions. ETH-treated plants exhibited better turf performance relative to the untreated control under PEG-stressed conditions illustrated by higher relative water content (RWC) and lower lipid peroxidation and lower electrolyte leakage (EL). In both cultivars, ETH treatment increased enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT); proline content; and soluble protein content under PEG-induced drought conditions. The results suggest that ETH seed treatment can improve drought tolerance in kentucky bluegrass seedlings.

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Traffic stress causes turfgrass injury and soil compaction but the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well documented. The objectives of this study were to investigate the physiological responses of kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and japanese zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) to three levels of traffic stress during the growing season under simulated soccer traffic conditions. Relative leaf water content (LWC), shoot density, leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC), membrane permeability, and leaf antioxidant peroxidase (POD) activity were measured once per month. The traffic stress treatments caused a reduction in LWC, shoot density, LCC, and POD activity, and an increase in cell membrane permeability in all three species. Japanese zoysiagrass had less electrolyte leakage, and higher POD activity and shoot density than both kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue. The results suggest that turfgrass tolerance to traffic stress may be related to leaf antioxidant activity. Turfgrass species or cultivars with higher leaf antioxidant activity may be more tolerant to traffic stress than those with lower antioxidant activity.

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Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is used extensively on temperate zone golf course greens, tees, and fairways, but often performs poorly in shade. Previous research has indicated that sequential applications of gibberellic acid (GA) inhibiting plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as trinexapac-ethyl (TE) increase cool-season turfgrass performance in 70-90% shade. This research was conducted to: 1) confirm appropriate TE application rates and frequencies for maintaining `Penncross' creeping bentgrass in dense shade in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.; 2) determine the efficacy of other PGRs, biostimulants, and iron (Fe); and 3) assess whether the addition of a biostimulant with TE would have additive, synergistic, or negative effects. The other compounds tested against TE and the control were: propiconazole (PPC), iron sulfate, CPR (a seaweed and iron containing biostimulant), and a generic seaweed extract (SWE) (Ascophyllum nodosum) plus humic acid (HA) combination. These treatments were applied to 88% shaded bentgrass every 14 days from May or June through October in 2001 and 2002, with turf quality, leaf color, root strength, photochemical efficiency, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity being determined. While the quality of control plots fell below a commercially acceptable level by the second month of the trial, repeated foliar TE application provided 33% to 44% better quality throughout the experiment. Propiconazole resulted in 13% to 17% better quality through September of each year. Trinexapac-ethyl and PPC resulted in darker leaf color and increased mid-trial root strength by 27% and 29%, respectively. Canopy photochemical efficiency and leaf SOD activity were also increased due to TE in August of both years. Treatment with Fe, CPR, or SWE+HA did not have an effect on quality, root strength, SOD, or photochemical efficiency, but periodic increases in color were observed. The addition of CPR to TE in 2002 provided results that were not different from those of TE-alone. This and previous studies indicate that restricting leaf elongation with anti-GA PGRs is of primary importance for improving shade tolerance, while treatments that increase leaf color or chlorophyll levels without restricting leaf elongation are relatively ineffective.

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