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  • Author or Editor: William J. Bramlage x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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`Cortland' and `Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) were exposed to an increasing number of hours below 10C before sequential harvests in each of 3 years. In separate experiments, `Cortland' apples were a) sprayed with ethephon to induce ripening at moderate temperatures and b) bagged in late August to produce ripening at low light intensities. Scald development was determined after 4 to 5 months of storage at 0C. Significant negative relationships with scald development occurred for hours below 10C, harvest date, and ripening indexes at harvest; however, the regressions with percentage scald were stronger for hours below 10C than for either harvest date or ripening. When ethephon-induced ripening occurred in the absence of low temperature, scald development decreased only slightly. Bagging fruit significantly delayed the loss of scald susceptibility with increasing hours below 10C. We conclude that low temperature was most responsible for rapid, substantial loss of scald susceptibility, and that light and ripening were secondary factors in this loss, interacting with the effects of temperature. Chemical name used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Antioxidants are believed to protect against the oxidation of α-farnesene to conjugated trienes in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh.) peel, thus providing resistance against superficial scald development. We conducted three experiments in which apples were a) harvested weekly, during which they were exposed to increasing hours at <10C during ripening; b) induced to ripen with no hours at <10C by applying ethephon; and c) enclosed in paper bags as they ripened. Inducing ripening with ethephon increased total water-soluble reducing compounds and percentage inhibition of lipid oxidation of peel extracts, increased concentrations of α-tocopherol, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid in peel, but only slightly reduced scald. Delayed harvests increased all of these antioxidants except ascorbic acid and greatly reduced scald development. Bagging fruit before ripening decreased α-tocopherol, carotenoid, and ascorbic acid concentrations, decreased total water-soluble reducing compounds, and increased scald development. We conclude that changes in these antioxidants probably are affected more by ripening and light intensity than by low temperature before harvest. Chemical name used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Ethephon and diphenylamine (DPA) were used to examine the role of ethylene production in biochemical changes that precede development of superficial scald on `Cortland' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) after cold storage. Treatments modified α-farnesene and conjugated triene (CT) accumulations in fruit peel, and their effects on CTs differed depending on whether CTs were measured at 258 nm (CT258) or 281 nm (CT281). Ethephon induced rapid and delayed effects on fruit, the former being stimulation of ethylene production and α-farnesene and CT accumulation in fruit peel, which could increase scald development, and the latter being a disproportionately higher accumulation of CT258 than of CT281 during prolonged cold storage, which was associated with reduced scald development. DPA treatment at harvest also produced rapid and delayed effects. It immediately reduced ethylene synthesis and α-farnesene and CT accumulation. In addition, during fruit storage at 0C, DPA reduced accumulation of CT281 more than that of CT258. The rapid and delayed effects of DPA should contribute to less scald development. These results showed that ethylene probably was involved in effects of ethephon and DPA on scald development and suggest that ethylene has a fundamental role in changes associated with superficial scald development.

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Influences of fruit maturity, AVG and ethephon preharvest treatments, and storage conditions on cuticular phenolic concentration, α-farnesene accumulation and oxidation, and scald development of `Delicious' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were studied. Advanced maturity and ethephon treatment increased free phenolics in fruit cuticle at harvest, while AVG treatment caused a reduction. Free cuticular phenolics increased during early storage in ethephon-treated and nontreated fruit but not in AVG-treated apples. Advanced maturity and ethephon did not alter α-farnesene accumulation overall, but reduced conjugated triene (CT281) formation and scald development. When stored in a low-ethylene room (<1 μL·L-1), AVG-treated fruit accumulated very low levels of α-farnesene and CT281 and did not develop scald after 6 months at 0 °C. When stored in a commercial room (ambient ethylene >5 μL·L-1), the AVG-treated and control fruit accumulated similar amounts of α-farnesene and CT281 and developed similar percentages of scald. In general, free phenolic concentrations in fruit cuticle were negatively correlated with CT281 formation and scald development of apples. Chemical names used: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Three experiments were conducted using `Cortland' and `Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Fruit varying widely in superficial scald susceptibility, because of either endogenous or experimentally induced conditions, were stored for various intervals at 0C and evaluated for scald development at 20C. Samples were extracted periodically in hexane, and ultraviolet absorption spectra of the extracts were used to evaluate α-farnesene and conjugated triene (CT) relationships to scald development. CT concentrations were calculated using each of the three CT absorption maxima (258-290 nm, 269-290 nm, and 281-290 nm) and expressed accordingly as CT258, CT269, and CT281. The poor association of CT281 concentrations with scald development led us to propose that metabolic products of CT281 species are more likely to be associated with scald development than the species themselves.

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Abstract

Postchilling ion leakage, respiration, and C2H4 biosynthesis were used to measure the degree of chilling injury to fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ‘Heinz 1350’). Chilling sensitivity, as measured by ion leakage, first declined as the tomatoes began to ripen and then increased during the late stages of ripening. Both C2H4 biosynthesis and respiration rate were stimulated during the chilling response early in ripening. In the nonripening mutant, nor, chilling sensitivity did not show the early decline but showed the increase during senescence. Variation in chilling sensitivity during tomato ripening was biphasic, with a decline at the onset of ripening followed by a senescence-related increase. It is proposed that the latter may be due to an increase in membrane viscosity.

Open Access

Abstract

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) applied to apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) 1 week before harvest suppressed C2H4 production and delayed C2H4 peaks of fruit kept at room temperature. Early season cultivars (‘Early McIntosh’, ‘McIntosh’) were less affected by AVG than were late-season cultivars (‘Cortland’, ‘Royal Red Delicious’). While ripening was significantly delayed, maturation of ‘Puritan’ apples, as judged by changes in firmness, peel chlorophyll concentration, percent soluble solids, flesh starch concentration, and titratable acidity, was unaffected by AVG tree-sprays applied up to 6 weeks before harvest. Addition of C2H4 to the storage atmosphere accelerated ripening of AVG-treated fruit, whereas their ripening was slowed by storage at 0°C rather than at 3.3°.

Open Access

Abstract

A new method for analyzing acetaldehyde concentration in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) tissues was used to measure its accumulation in senescing fruits. Initially low levels (1 µg/g fresh weight) increased as the fruits ripened, but only at advanced senescence did they reach relatively high levels (14 µg/g fresh weight). Acetaldehyde did not accumulate in advance of tissue disorganization. Watercored ‘Delicious’ apple tissue accumulated significantly more acetaldehyde than tissue of non-watercored fruits during storage, but watercore breakdown did not result. There was no consistent difference in acetaldehyde levels of ethephon-treated and non-treated ‘McIntosh’ apples after long-term storage, although the ethephon-treated fruits developed more senescent breakdown. However, the acetaldehyde level in fruits after breakdown occurred was about 20% higher than that in corresponding sound fruit. Acetaldehyde accumulation appeared to be a consequence of tissue disorganization rather than a cause of senescent breakdown in the fruits.

Open Access

To examine the hypothesis that superficial scald of apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) is a chilling injury, `Granny Smith' apples were stored at temperatures ranging from 0 to 20C, temperature-conditioned before storage, and warmed during storage. Fruit stored at 0 or 4C developed supeficial scald. At 10C, surface defects occurred but they were not typical symptoms of scald, and at 15 or 20C no symptoms developed. Accumulation of α-1 faroesene and conjugated trienes in fruit peel correlated with increasing ethylene production, which was greater at higher temperatures. However, concentrations of conjugated trienes were highest at 0 and 4C. When fruit were kept at 10C for 5 or 10 days before storage, scald development after storage was not reduced. An interruption of 0C storage with a single warming period at 10 or 20C reduced scald development after 25 weeks of storage, maximum reduction occurring when fruit were warmed for 3 to 5 days at 20C after 1 to 4 weeks at 0C. Amelioration of scald declined as time at 0C before warming increased. Diphenylamine application after the same intervals at 0C, instead of warming, also was less beneficial as time before treatment increased. α-Farnesene and conjugated trienes increased during warming, but at the end of storage (when scald was developing) the conjugated triene concentrations in peel were reduced in fruit that had been warmed. Warming slightly increased yellowing, softening, and greasiness of fruit after storage, We conclude that chilling induced superficial scald on `Granny Smith' apples.

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Abstract

A 4-year study compared 4 methods of subsampling ‘McIntosh’ apples for mineral analyses intended for use in predicting postharvest senescent breakdown. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, and N were determined in outer cortex, whole fruit, and juice in 1979 and 1980, and in outer cortex and cortical plugs in 1981 and 1982. Multiple linear regression equations were developed for each sampling in 1979 and 1981 relating the natural logarithms (In) of Ca and P concentrations and Mg:Ca, K:Ca, and N:Ca ratios to In (breakdown percentage +1). Effectiveness of each equation as a predictor of breakdown during and following storage was tested using data collected the following year. Paired t tests comparing predicted breakdown, using 1979 equations and 1980 mineral analyses, to breakdown observed after storage in 1980-1981 showed that outer cortex- and whole fruit-based predictions were not significantly different from observed breakdown, but juice equations predicted significantly more breakdown than was observed. Correlation coefficients relating actual to predicted breakdown were positive and significant for all 3 methods. In 1981, separate equations were developed to predict fruit breakdown after air and after controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Paired t tests showed the predicted incidence of breakdown following CA storage was not significantly different from actual breakdown incidences for either outer cortex or cortical plug equations. Breakdown incidence following air storage was less than predicted. In all instances, correlation between actual and predicted breakdown incidence was positive and significant. Outer cortex, whole fruit, and cortical plug analyses showed promise as breakdown predictors, but juice analyses were ineffective.

Open Access